Annals of Ophthalmology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 43–47 | Cite as

Effect of warming and buffering lidocaine on pain during facial anesthesia

  • Haluk Talu
  • Orhan Elibol
  • Ates Yanyali
  • Levent Karabas
  • Banu Alp
  • Yusuf Çaglar
Original Article


In a double-blind study, room-temperature lidocaine was injected randomly into 1 eyelid of 40 patients during facial anesthesia. The other eyelid of the same eye received injection of warm lidocaine (group 1) or bicarbonate-buffered lidocaine (group 2). Based on a pain scale, warming or buffering lidocaine did not significantly reduce the amount of infiltration pain. Buffering lidocaine was effective in reducing the quality of pain, as judged by the patient's report of dominant pain.


Lidocaine Pain Score Bupivacaine Cataract Surgery Anesthetic Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wightman MA, Vaughan RW. Comparison of compounds used for intra-dermal anaesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1976;45:687–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morris RW, Whish DKM. A controlled trial of pain on skin infiltration with local anaesthetics. Anesth Intensive Care. 1984;12:113–114.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morris R, McKee W, Muslin P. Comparison of pain associated with intra-dermal and subcutaneous infiltration with various local anesthetic solutions. Anesth Analg., 1987;66:1180–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gormly DE. Local anesthesia: pain control with proper injection technique. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1987;13:35–36.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bainbridge LC. Comparison of room temperature and body temperature local anaesthetic solutions. Br J Plast Surg. 1991;44:147–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davidson JA, Boom SJ. Warming lignocaine to reduce pain associated with injection. Br Med J. 1992;305:617–618.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Kimberly B, Schwartz S. Pain reduction in local anesthetic administration through pH buffering. Ann Emerg Med. 1988;17:117–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martin AJ. pH-adjustment and discomfort caused by the intradermal injection of lignocaine. Anaesthesia. 1990;45:975–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krause M, Weindler J, Ruprecht KW. Does warming of anesthetic solutions improve analgesia and akinesia in retrobulbar anesthesia? Ophthalmology. 1997;3:429–432.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kaplan PA, Lieberman PE, Vonk BM. Does heating lidocaine decrease the pain of injection? Am J Radiol. 1987;149:1291.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dalton AM, Sharma A, Redwood M, Wadsworth J, Touquet R. Does the warming of the local anesthetic reduce the pain of its injection? Arch Emerg Med. 1989;6:247–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knapp H. On cocaine and its use in ophthalmic and general surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1884;13:402–448.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krohn J, Hovdig G, Seland H, Aasved, H. Retrobulbar anaesthesia with and without adrenaline in extracapsular cataract surgery. Acta Ophthalmol. 1995;73:56–60.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boggia R. Heating local anaesthetic cartridges. Br Dent J. 1967; 122:287.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Finkel LI, Berg DJ. Heating lidocaine appears to prevent painful injection. AJR. 1987;148:651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cragg AH, Berbaum K, Smith TP. A prospective blinded trial of warm and cold lidocaine for intra-dermal injection. AJR. 1988;148: 651.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bloom LH, Scheie HG, Yanoff M. The warming of local anesthetic agents to decrease discomfort. Ophthalmic Surg. 1984;15:603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bell RWD, Butt ZA. Warming lignocaine reduces the pain of injection during peri-bulbar local anaesthesia for cataract surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995;79:1015–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mehta PM, Theriot E, Mehrotra D, Patel K, Kimball BG. A simple technique to make bupivacaine a rapid acting epidural anaesthetic. Reg Anaesth. 1987;12:135–137.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Difazio CA, Carron H, Grosslight KR, Moscicky JC, Bolding WR, Johns RA. Comparison of pH-adjusted lidocaine solutions for epidural anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1986;65:760–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moorland GH, Douglas MJ, Jeffrey WK, et al. Effect of pH adjusted bupivacaine on onset and duration of epidural analgesia in parturients. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1986;33:537–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tackley RM, Coe AJ. Alkalised bupivacaine and adrenaline for epidural Caesarean section: a comparison with 0.5% bupivacaine. Anaesthesia. 1988;43:1019–1021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McKay W, Morris R, Mushlin P. Sodium bicarbonate attenuates pain on skin infiltration with lidocaine with and without epinephrine. Anesth Analg. 1987;66:572.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haluk Talu
    • 1
  • Orhan Elibol
    • 1
  • Ates Yanyali
    • 1
  • Levent Karabas
    • 1
  • Banu Alp
    • 1
  • Yusuf Çaglar
    • 1
  1. 1.Ophthalmology DepartmentKocaeli University School of MedicineKocaeliTurkey

Personalised recommendations