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Contribution to the optimization of the autonomous photovoltaic solar systems with hybrid storage for loads with peak power with constraints of volume and loss of power supply probability

  • Guy Clarence SemassouEmail author
  • Abdel Deen Derrick Vital Dai Tometin
  • Roger Ahouansou
  • Kouamy Victorin Chegnimonhan
  • Tognon Clotide Guidi
Technical Paper

Abstract

The storage of energy is a fundamental aspect in the performance and the lifespan of the autonomous photovoltaic solar systems. The batteries with lead-acid are the most widespread technology of storage, because of their great availability, their low cost and their weak maintenance. They are generally failing because of certain defects such as: the stratification, sulphating, short-circuits, oxidation…These various defects strongly affect the lifespan of the batteries and thus the lifetime cost of the solar system. The appearance of these defects is for most of the time related to a non-optimal dimensioning of the system which does not take into account the starting peak power of certain electrical appliance. Indeed, the taking into account of these peak powers generate an oversizing of the batteries, consequently of the photovoltaic field and thus a very significant investment. To answer these problems, we proposed in this work a method of optimization of the autonomous solar systems by integrating ultracapacitors to meet the requirement in peak power. A program of optimization was developed in Matlab for this purpose, simulations were also done under Simulink to explore the advantages of the integration of ultracapacitors in the element of storage of an autonomous PV system with various profiles of load. The program of optimization has a step of time able to collect the fluctuations of the load and profiles of solar radiation and generates the best orientation according to the site so that the photovoltaic panel generates the maximum annual power. The program also makes it possible to determine the financial economy carried out by exploiting the Hybrid System of Storage with ultracapacitors and proposes various combinations of panels, batteries and ultracapacitors compared to LVD limit fixed with the lifetime cost and the LPSP corresponding. The management system of energy for the complete system was studied with imposed constraint the full charge of ultracapacitors between the peak powers.

Keywords

Optimization Lifetime cost PV solar system Ultracapacitor 

List of symbols

Ecap

Energy requirement of the supercondensator (J)

Va

Maximum tension of operation of the supercondensator

Vb

Minimal tension of operation of the supercondensator

NCapSer

Number of series ultracapacitors

NCapPar

Number of parallel ultracapacitors

CCap

Nominal ultracapacitor capacitance

CCapReq

Required capacitance of the ultracapacitor bank

Vcap

Ultracapacitor voltage

NBattPar

Number of parallel batteries

NBattSer

Number of series batteries

VSys

System operating voltage

VBatt

Battery rated voltage

AhCap

Nominal battery capacity

VBatt

Battery rated voltage

VSys

System operating voltage

EBatt

Available battery energy

SOCLimit

Battery SOC limit

T

Optimisation horizon

PPV

PV panel output power

PStorage

Storage power

PLoad

Load power

Ni

Number of component i

CIi

Initial investment cost

CRi

Replacement cost

CMRi

Cost of maintenance and repair of component i

PWA

Annual payment present worth factors

Ki

Single payment present worth factors

yi

Numbers of replacements of component i

Li

Lifetime of component i

ir

Real interest rate

Rv

Project’s lifetime

Abbreviations

DOA

Days of autonomy

LVD

Low voltage disconnect

SOC

State of charge

LPSP

Loss of power supply probability

PV

Photovoltaic

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communication

ASECNA

Agency of the safety of air navigation in Africa and Madagascar

VRLA

Valve regulated lead acid

LCC

Life cycle cost

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Energetics and Applied Mechanics (LEMA)University of Abomey-CalaviCotonouBenin
  2. 2.Laboratory of Thermophysical Characterization of Materials and Energy Appropriation (LABO - C. T. M. A. E.)University of Abomey-CalaviCotonouBenin
  3. 3.Laboratory Processes and Technology Innovation (LaPIT), University Institute of Technology LokossaLokossa UniversityLokossaBenin
  4. 4.Laboratory of Thermokinetics(LTN) - CNRS, UMR 6607NantesFrance

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