Development of Entrepreneurial Ability Scale in pre-graduate students

  • Abril Aydeé Garza-Sáenz
  • Jesús Santos-GuzmánEmail author
  • Eduardo Leal-Beltrán
  • Melina Miaja-Ávila
  • Gregorio Martínez-Ozuna
Short Original Paper


This study was aimed to validate the Entrepreneurial Ability Scale in pre-graduate students (Mavila et al. in Ind Data 12(2):32–39, 2009), and studying the internal consistency, factor structure and distribution of the scale, as well as the entrepreneurship level and mean difference between men and women. We present a case study with a sample of 205 students. The results confirm the 4 entrepreneurship factors, however shows differences with the original study since the scale was reduced to 24 items. In the confirmatory factor analysis, dimensions were grouped differently, featuring a better fit and internal consistency. Students reflect high entrepreneurial skills on the four dimensions (carrying capacity, planning, creativity, commitment and responsibility). The study also provided input for setting and monitoring targets on entrepreneurship in educational processes.


Entrepreneurship Higher education Innovation Validation 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial and the technical support of Writing Lab, TecLabs, and Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico in the production of this work.


  1. 1.
    Scheel, C., Aguiñaga, E.: A Systemic approach to innovation: breaking the rules of conventional regional development- the cases of Mexico, Colombia, India and Brazil. In: International Cases on Innovation, Knowledge and Technology Transfer, pp. 95–113 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Filion, L.J.: Defining the entrepreneur. In: Dana, L.-P. (ed.) World Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, pp. 41–52. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schumpeter, J.A.: Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Routledge, Abingdon (1976)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hisrich, R.D.: Entrepreneurship/intrapreneurship. Am. Psychol. 45(2), 209–222 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mavila, D., Tinoco, O., Campos, C.: Factores influyentes en la capacidad emprendedora de los alumnos de la Universidad. Ind. Data 12(2), 32–39 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kusmintarti, A., Anshori, M.A., Sulasari, A., Ismanu, S.: Student’s entrepreneur profile: a cluster of student’s entrepreneurial characteristics. J. Entrep. Educ. 21, 1–12 (2018)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castillo-Vergara, M.: Entrepreneurship perception in higher education. A comparative study among Students, Faculty Members and Directors. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud 14(1), 221–233 (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nabi, G., Holden, R., Walmsley, A.: Entrepreneurial intentions among students: towards a re-focused research agenda. J. Small Bus. Enterp. Dev. 17(4), 537–551 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sánchez Cañizares, S.M., Fuentes García, F.J.: Gender differences in entrepreneurial attitudes. Equal. Divers. Incl. Int. J. 29(8), 766–786 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Noble, A.F., Jung, D., Ehrlich, B.: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: the development of a measure and its relationship to entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrep. Theory Pract. 18(4), 63–77 (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pepe, S.J., Farnese, M.L., Avalone, F., Vecchione, M.: Work Self-efficacy Scale and Search for Work Self-efficacy Scale: a validation study in Spanish and Italian cultural contexts. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones 26(3), 201–210 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moriano, J.A., Palací, F.J., Morales, J.F.: Adaptación y validación en España de la escala de Autoeficacia Emprendedora. Revista de Psicología Social 21(1), 51–61 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cronbach, L.J., Shavelson, R.J.: My current thoughts on coefficient alpha and successor procedures. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 64(3), 391–418 (2004)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Taherdoost, H., Sahibuddin, S., Jalaliyoon, N.: Exploratory factor analysis; concepts and theory. Adv. Appl. Pure Math. 375–382 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Molino, M., Dolce, V., Cortese, C.G., Ghislieri, C.: Personality and social support as determinants of entrepreneurial intention. Gender differences in Italy. PLoS ONE 13(6), e0199924 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2016/2017. Report on Women’s Entrepreneurship. Accessed 20 Dec 2019
  17. 17.
    Wieland, A., Kemmelmeier, M., Gupta, V., McKelvey, W.: Gendered cognitions: a socio-cognitive model of how gender affects entrepreneurial preferences. Entrep. Reg. Dev. 31, 178–197 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    DeTienne, D.R., Chandler, G.N.: The role of gender in opportunity identification. Entrep. Theory Pract. 31(3), 365–386 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tugrul, D., Dabic, M., Bayraktaroglu, E.: Students’ entrepreneurial behavior: international and gender differences. J. Innov. Entrep. 5, 19 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Opoku-Antwi, G.L., Amofah, K., Nyamaah-Koffuo, K., Yakubu, A.: Entrepreneurial intention among senior high school students in the Sunyani Municipality. Int. Rev. Manag. Market. 2(4), 210–219 (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shaw, E., Shaw, J., Wilson, M.: Unsung Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship for Social Gain. University of Durham Business School, Durham (2001)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoogendoorn, B.: Social Entrepreneurship in the Modern Economy: Warm Glow, Cold Feet. Cancer Research (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ambad, A., Nabila, S., Haryani, D., Ag, Damit D.: Determinants of entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Proc. Econ. Finance 37, 108–114 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nauta, M.M., Kokaly, M.L.: Assessing role model influences on students’ academic and vocational decisions. J. Career Assess. 9(1), 81–99 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibson, C.B., Birkinshaw, J.: The antecedents, consequences, and mediating role of organizational ambidexterity. Acad. Manag. J. 47(2), 209–226 (2004)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karimi, S.H., Biemans, J.A., Thomas, L., Chizari, M., Mulder, M., Mahde, K.N.: Understanding role models and gender influences on entrepreneurial intentions among college students. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci. 93, 204–214 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    De Bruin, A., Brush, C.G., Welter, F.: Towards building cumulative knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrep. Theory Pract. 30(5), 585–594 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brush, C.G., Brush, C.G.: Growth-oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses: A global research perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yurtkoru, S., Zeynep, K.K., Doganay, A.: Exploring the Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention on Turkish University Students. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci. 150, 841–850 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zapkau, F., Schwens, C., Steinmetz, H., Kabst, R.: Disentangling the effect of prior entrepreneurial exposure on entrepreneurial intention. J. Bus. Res. 68, 639–653 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ussman, A.M., Postigo, S.O.: Papel da Universidade no Fomento da Funcao Empresarial. Anais Universitarios. Ciencias Sociais e Humanas, n° Especial 1990–2000, Anais Aniversario 219–233 (2000)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Duval-Couetil, N., Reed, T., Haghighi, S.: Engineering students and entrepreneurship education: involvement, attitudes and outcomes. Int. J. Eng. Educ. 28, 425–435 (2012)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chang Jane, R.A.: Assessing students’ entrepreneurial skills development in live projects. J. Small Bus. Enterp. Dev. 20(1), 225–241 (2013). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barba-Sáncheza, V., Atienza-Sahuquillo, C.: Entrepreneurial intention among engineering students: the role of entrepreneurship education. Eur. Res. Manag. Bus. Econ. 24(1), 1–62 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Millicana, G., Richards, P., Mann, L.: Future engineers Australia management project: turning high school students into engineering entrepreneurs. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ASEE/AaeE 4th Global Colloquium on Engineering Education. Paper 71Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Senthamarai, S.: Interactive teaching strategies. J. Appl. Adv. Res. 3(1), S36–S38 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Giorgdze Madona, D.M.: Interactive teaching methods: challenges and perspectives. Int. E-J. Adv. Educ. III(9), 544–548 (2017)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nomthandazo, J., Muhammad, H.: Entrepreneurial intentions among university students: a case study of Durban of Durban University of Technology. Acad. Entrep. J. 24(3), 1–19 (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad de PsicologíaUniversidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL)San Nicolás de los GarzaMexico
  2. 2.Tecnologico de MonterreyEscuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la SaludMonterreyMexico

Personalised recommendations