Preemptive Low-dose Dexamethasone Reduces Postoperative Emesis and Pain After TKA: A Randomized Controlled Study
- First Online:
- 762 Downloads
Dexamethasone is a potent analgesic and antiemetic. However, the benefit of dexamethasone after TKA is unclear, as is the efficacy in a current multimodal regime.
We determined (1) whether the addition of dexamethasone to a protocol including ramosetron further reduces postoperative emesis compared with ramosetron alone; (2) whether it reduces postoperative pain; and (3) whether it increases the risk for wound complications in a current multimodal regime after TKA.
We randomized 269 patients undergoing TKAs to receive dexamethasone (10 mg) 1 hour before surgery and ramosetron immediately after surgery (Dexa-Ra group, n = 135), or ramosetron alone (Ra group, n = 134). We recorded the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), severity of nausea, incidence of antiemetic requirement, complete response, pain level, and opioid consumption. Patients were assessed 0 to 6, 6 to 24, 24 to 48, and 48 to 72 hours postoperatively. In addition, patients were evaluated for wound complications and periprosthetic joint infections at a minimum of 1 year after surgery.
The Dexa-Ra group had a lower incidence of PONV during the entire 72-hour evaluation period and experienced less severe nausea for the first 6 hours after TKA, although not between 6 to 72 hours. Overall use of a rescue antiemetic was less frequent, and complete response was more frequent in the Dexa-Ra group. Patients in the Dexa-Ra group experienced lower pain and consumed less opioids during the 6- to 24-hour period and during the overall study period. No differences were found in wound complications between the groups, and each group had one case of periprosthetic joint infection.
Patients who received prophylactic dexamethasone in addition to ramosetron had reduced postoperative emesis and pain without increased risks for wound complications, compared with patients who received ramosetron alone in patients managed using a multimodal regimen after TKA.
Level of Evidence
Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
- 1.Aminmansour B, Khalili HA, Ahmadi J, Nourian M. Effect of high-dose intravenous dexamethasone on postlumbar discectomy pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:2415–2417.Google Scholar
- 2.Apfel CC, Korttila K, Abdalla M, Kerger H, Turan A, Vedder I, Zernak C, Danner K, Jokela R, Pocock SJ, Trenkler S, Kredel M, Biedler A, Sessler DI, Roewer N. A factorial trial of six interventions for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2441–2451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Chen JJ, Frame DG, White TJ. Efficacy of ondansetron and prochlorperazine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after total hip replacement or total knee replacement procedures: a randomized, double-blind, comparative trial. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:2124–2128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Fortin PR, Clarke AE, Joseph L, Liang MH, Tanzer M, Ferland D, Phillips C, Partridge AJ, Belisle P, Fossel AH, Mahomed N, Sledge CB, Katz JN. Outcomes of total hip and knee replacement: preoperative functional status predicts outcomes at six months after surgery. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42:1722–1728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Jules-Elysee KM, Wilfred SE, Memtsoudis SG, Kim DH, Yadeau JT, Urban MK, Lichardi ML, McLawhorn AS, Sculco TP. Steroid modulation of cytokine release and desmosine levels in bilateral total knee replacement: aprospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:2120–2127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Parvizi J, Zmistowski B, Berbari EF, Bauer TW, Springer BD, Della Valle CJ, Garvin KL, Mont MA, Wongworawat MD, Zalavras CG. New definition for periprosthetic joint infection: from the Workgroup of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:2992–2994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 50.Song KH, Kang YM, Sin HY, Yoon SW, Seo HK, Kwon S, Shin MJ, Chang CB, Kim TK, Kim HB. Outcome of cefazolin prophylaxis for total knee arthroplasty at an institution with high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e867–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar