Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®

, Volume 471, Issue 5, pp 1698–1706 | Cite as

What are the Factors Influencing Outcome Among Patients Admitted to a Hospital With a Proximal Humeral Fracture?

  • Valentin Neuhaus
  • Christiaan H. J. Swellengrebel
  • Jeroen K. J. Bossen
  • David Ring
Clinical Research



Fracture of the proximal humerus is common in older patients during the decline of their physical health.


Our purpose was to evaluate the association between specific risk factors in patients with fractures of the proximal humerus and any inpatient adverse events, mortality, and discharge to a short-term or long-term care facility.


The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) provided estimates of all adult patients who were admitted to hospitals after fractures of the proximal humerus in the United States between 1990 and 2007. The influences of sex, age, days of care, diagnosis and procedures (based on ICD-9 codes) on inpatient adverse events and death, and discharge to a short-term or long-term care facility, were studied in bivariate and multivariable analyses.


Among an estimated 867,282 patients admitted for proximal humerus fractures, 20% experienced adverse events, and 2.3% died in the hospital. Older age, concomitant femur and femoral neck fractures or head trauma, operative fracture care, congestive heart failure, and chronic alcoholism were associated with inpatient adverse events. Intubation, acute myocardial infarctions, malignancies, and skull fractures were associated with inpatient deaths. Older age, lower limb fractures, specific comorbidities (obesity, congestive heart failure, dementia), and inpatient adverse events (pneumonia, anemia treated with transfusion) were associated with discharges to short-term or long-term care facilities.


Knowledge of risk factors for inpatient adverse events, mortality, and discharge to facilities can help make treatment decisions, improve overall care, discharge planning, and resource utilization for patients with proximal humeral fractures.

Level of Evidence

Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


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Copyright information

© The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentin Neuhaus
    • 1
  • Christiaan H. J. Swellengrebel
    • 1
  • Jeroen K. J. Bossen
    • 1
  • David Ring
    • 1
  1. 1.Orthopaedic Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Yawkey CenterMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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