Surgical Technique: Repair of Forefoot Skin and Soft Tissue Defects Using a Lateral Tarsal Flap With a Reverse Dorsalis Pedis Artery Pedicle: A Retrospective Study of 11 Patients
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Various authors have proposed flaps to reconstruct traumatic forefoot skin and soft tissue defects, especially with exposure of tendon and/or bone although which is best for particular circumstances is unclear.
Description of Technique
The indications for the technique were a forefoot defect area of no more than 8-cm × 8-cm and a well-preserved lateral tarsal (LT) donor site. The injured tendons were repaired using tendon grafts. The free dorsalis pedis flap was outlined by centering it on the cutaneous branch of the LT artery and tailoring it to the size of the wound, allowing 0.5-cm margins in length and width. The flap was rotated around the plantar perforating branch of the dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) to cover the forefoot defect. The lateral dorsalis pedis cutaneous nerve was anastomosed with the recipient plantar nerve stump. The donor site was covered with an inguinal, full-thickness skin graft.
Patients and Methods
Traumatic forefoot skin and soft tissue defects with exposure of the tendon and/or bone involving 11 feet in 11 patients (mean age, 32 years) were covered using a LT flap with a reversed DPA pedicle. Three patients with forefoot defects underwent emergency repair within 8 hours of injury, whereas eight patients required delayed repair. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months (mean, 13 months; range, 6–24 months).
All flaps survived uneventfully, except for two that had superficial marginal necrosis or severe venous insufficiency. All skin grafts covering the donor sites survived and all wounds healed. None of the patients had restricted standing or walking at followups. The two-point discrimination was 4 mm to 10 mm at 6 months postoperative. The mean hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale score was 93 points (range, 87–98 points).
Our observations suggest the LT flap with a reversed DPA pedicle is a reasonable option for repair of traumatic forefoot skin and soft tissue defects with exposure of tendon and/or bone but a well-preserved LT donor site and is associated with minimal morbidity.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
KeywordsDonor Site Soft Tissue Defect Recipient Site Metatarsophalangeal Joint Plantar Artery
We thank Medjaden Biosciences Ltd. for proofreading the English manuscript.