Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®

, Volume 470, Issue 11, pp 3270–3274 | Cite as

Gustilo-Anderson Classification

  • Paul H. Kim
  • Seth S. Leopold
In Brief


Open fractures usually are high-energy injuries. This, along with the exposure of bone and deep tissue to the environment, leads to increased risk of infection, wound complications, and nonunion [12, 28, 31]. Antibiotics, surgical débridement, and internal fixation have improved outcomes of open fracture management in important ways, but the underlying principles for treating open fractures have remained the same since World War I: primary asepsis, adequate debridement, immobilization, and protection of wounds against disturbance and reinfection [25, 26].

Despite the overall improvement in outcome after open fractures, the variable outcomes among different patterns of open fractures with differing severities prompted the development of grading systems that classify them based on increasing severity of the associated soft tissue injuries. These grading systems seek to help guide treatment, improve communication and research, and predict outcome. Such classifications have been in...


Open Fracture Soft Tissue Injury Soft Tissue Coverage Type IIIB Soft Tissue Envelope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattle USA

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