Environmental Tobacco and Wood Smoke Increase the Risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
- 301 Downloads
The etiology of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) remains unknown. A few studies have suggested passive smoke inhalation may be a risk factor, although the association is not confirmed and a causal relationship has not been established.
We therefore undertook this study to confirm an association between environmental tobacco smoke, firewood smoke, and socioeconomic status and the risk of LCPD.
We prospectively recruited 128 children with LCPD and 384 children attending the hospital for other orthopaedic complaints. The control subjects were frequency-matched with the cases by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association between the exposures and risk of LCPD.
The main risk factors for LCPD were indoor use of a wood stove (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.56) and having a family member who smoked indoors (adjusted OR, 2.07). Children from the middle socioeconomic group appeared to be at a greater risk of developing LCPD (adjusted OR, 3.60).
This study provides further evidence that environmental tobacco smoke is associated with an increased risk of LCPD. Exposure to wood smoke also appears to be a risk factor. However, it remains unclear why there are profound differences in the incidence of the disease between regions when the prevalence of smoking is comparable and why bilateral involvement and familial disease are infrequent.
Level of Evidence
Level III, case-control study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
KeywordsEnvironmental Tobacco Smoke Conditional Logistic Regression Wood Smoke Wood Stove Prenatal Maternal Smoking
We gratefully acknowledge the statistical advice and guidance of Dr Sreekumaran Nair, Head of the Department of Statistics, Manipal University, and the valuable comments of Professor Andrew J. Hall, Professor of Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
- 6.Calvé J. [On a particular form of pseudo-coxalgia associated with characteristic deformities of the proximal femur] [in French]. Revue de Chirurgie Paris. 1910;42:54–84.Google Scholar
- 7.Chaudhry K, Prabhakar AK, Prabhakaran PS, Prasad A, Singh K, Singh A. Prevalence of tobacco use in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh in India. Final report of the study by the Indian Council of Medical Research and the WHO South East Asian Regional Office, New Delhi; 2001. Available at: http://searo.who.int/EN/Section1174/section1462/pdfs/surv/SentinelIndia2001.pdf. Accessed January 22, 2008.
- 9.Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Bangladesh Report 2009. Summary. Available at: www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Regional_Tobacco_Surveillance_System_GATSBAN_Report2009.pdf. Accessed March 31, 2010.
- 10.Glover JD, Hetzel DMS, Tennant SK. The socioeconomic gradient and chronic illness and associated risk factors in Australia. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy. 2004;1:8. Available at: www.anzhealthpolicy.com/content/1/1/8. Accessed March 31, 2010.
- 15.International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and ORC Macro. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), 1998-99: India. Mumbai: IIPs; 2000.Google Scholar
- 26.Pareek U, Trivedi G. Manual of Socio-economic Status Scale (rural). Delhi: Manasayan; 1980.Google Scholar