Two-stage Exchange Arthroplasty for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty: Predictors of Failure
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In North America, a two-stage exchange arthroplasty remains the preferred surgical treatment for chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Currently, there are no proper indicators that can guide orthopaedic surgeons in patient selection for two-stage exchange or the appropriate conditions in which to reimplant.
To identify (1) the rate of recurrent PJI after two-stage exchange and (2) the role of 15 presurgical and 11 operative factors in influencing the outcome of two-stage revision.
Patients and Methods
From a prospective database we identified 117 patients who had undergone two-stage exchange arthroplasty for PJI of the knee from 1997 to 2007. Failure of two-stage revision was defined as any treated knee requiring further treatment for PJI. We identified 15 presurgical and 11 surgical factors that might be related to failure. Minimum followup was 2 years (average, 3.4 years; range, 2–9.4 years).
Thirty-three of 117 reimplantations (28%) required reoperation for infection. Age, gender, body mass index, and comorbidity indices were similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis provided culture-negative (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–15.7), methicillin-resistant organisms (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.8–10.3), and increased reimplantation operative time (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.0–1.03) as predictors of failure. ESR and CRP values at the time of reimplantation and time from resection to reimplantation were not predictors.
Our observations suggest the failure rate after two-stage reimplantation for infected TKA is relatively high. Culture-negative or methicillin-resistant PJI increases the risk of failure over four- and twofold, respectively. We identified no variables that would guide the surgeon in identifying acceptable circumstances in which to perform the second stage.
Level of Evidence
Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
KeywordsPeriprosthetic Joint Infection Recursive Partitioning Analysis Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty Prosthesis Retention Periprosthetic Knee Infection
We thank Mitchell Maltenfort, PhD, for his assistance with statistical analysis on this project.
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