Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®

, Volume 468, Issue 1, pp 199–208

How Successful are Current Ankle Replacements?: A Systematic Review of the Literature

  • Nikolaos Gougoulias
  • Anil Khanna
  • Nicola Maffulli
Clinical Research


Total ankle arthroplasty provides an alternative to arthrodesis for management of ankle arthritis. What is the outcome of total ankle arthroplasty implants currently in use? We conducted a systematic literature search of studies reporting on the outcome of total ankle arthroplasty. We included peer-reviewed studies reporting on at least 20 total ankle arthroplasties with currently used implants, with a minimum followup of 2 years. The Coleman Methodology Score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Thirteen Level IV studies of overall good quality reporting on 1105 total ankle arthroplasties (234 Agility™, 344 STAR, 153 Buechel-Pappas™, 152 HINTEGRA®, 98 Salto™, 70 TNK, 54 Mobility™) were included. Residual pain was common (range, 27%–60%), superficial wound complications occurred in 0% to 14.7%, deep infections occurred in 0% to 4.6% of ankles, and ankle function improved after total ankle arthroplasty. The overall failure rate was approximately 10% at 5 years with a wide range (range, 0%–32%) between different centers. Superiority of an implant design over another cannot be supported by the available data.

Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


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Copyright information

© The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolaos Gougoulias
    • 1
  • Anil Khanna
    • 1
  • Nicola Maffulli
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and DentistryMile End HospitalLondonUK

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