Advertisement

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®

, Volume 468, Issue 3, pp 654–664 | Cite as

A History of Bracing for Idiopathic Scoliosis in North America

  • Reginald S. FayssouxEmail author
  • Robert H. Cho
  • Martin J. Herman
Symposium: Pediatric Spine

Abstract

The care of the patient with scoliosis has a history extending back over two millennia with cast and brace treatment being a relatively recent endeavor, the modern era comprising just over half a century. Much of the previous literature provides a modest overview with emphasis on the history of the operative management. To better understand the current concepts of brace treatment of scoliosis, an appreciation of the history of bracing would be helpful. As such, we review the history of the treatment of scoliosis with an emphasis on modern brace treatment, primarily from a North American perspective. Our review utilizes consideration of historical texts as well as current treatises on the history of scoliosis and includes discussion of brace development with their proponents’ rationale for why they work along with an appraisal of their clinical outcomes. We provide an overview of the current standards of care and the braces typically employed toward that standard including: the Milwaukee brace, the Wilmington brace, the Boston brace, the Charleston brace, the Providence brace and the SpineCor brace. Finally, we discuss future trends including improvements in methods of determining the critical period of peak growth velocity in children with scoliosis, the exciting promise of gene markers for progressive scoliosis and “internal bracing” options.

Keywords

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Idiopathic Scoliosis Spinal Deformity Skeletal Maturity Scoliosis Research Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank G. Dean MacEwen for his commitment to education and his invaluable assistance in the preparation of the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Allington NJ, Bowen JR. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: treatment with the Wilmington brace. A comparison of full-time and part-time use. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996;78:1056–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andriacchi TP, Schultz AB, Belytschko TB, Dewald R. Milwaukee brace correction of idiopathic scoliosis. A biomechanical analysis and a retrospective study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976;58:806–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apter A, Morein G, Munitz H, Tyano S, Maoz B, Wijsenbeek H. The psychosocial sequelae of the Milwaukee brace in adolescent girls. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;131:156–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bademci G, Batay F, Sabuncuoglu H. First detailed description of axial traction techniques by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu in the 15th century. Eur Spine J. 2005;14:810–812.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blount W, Schmidt AC, Keever ED, Leonard ET. The Milwaukee brace in the operative treatment of scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1958;40:511–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Braun JT, Akyuz E, Ogilvie JW, Bachus KW. The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:2038–2051.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bunnell WP, MacEwen GD, Jayakumar S. The use of plastic jackets in the non-operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1980;62:31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carr WA, Moe JH, Winter RB, Lonstein JE. Treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in the Milwaukee brace. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1980;62:599–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Charles YP, Diméglio A, Canavese F, Daures JP. Skeletal age assessment from the olecranon for idiopathic scoliosis at Risser grade 0. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:2737–2744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Climent JM, Sánchez J. Impact of the type of brace on the quality of life of adolescents with spine deformities. Spine. 1999;24:1903–1908.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coillard C, Leroux MA, Zabjek KF, Rivard CH. SpineCor—a non-rigid brace for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: post-treatment results. Eur Spine J. 2003;12:141–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Coillard C, Vachon V, Circo AB, Beauséjour M, Rivard CH. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27:375–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D’Amato CR, Griggs S, McCoy B. Nighttime bracing with the Providence brace in adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2001;26:2006–2012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D’Amato CR, McCoy B. The Providence Scoliosis System Manual. Milwaukee, WI: Scoliosis Research Society; 2003.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Diméglio A, Charles YP, Daures JP, de Rosa V, Kaboré B. Accuracy of the Sauvegrain method in determining skeletal age during puberty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:1689–1696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Emans JB. Reference Manual for the Boston Scoliosis Brace. Milwaukee, WI: Scoliosis Research Society; 2003.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Emans JB, Kaelin A, Bancel P, Hall JE, Miller ME. The Boston bracing system for idiopathic scoliosis. Follow-up results in 295 patients. Spine. 1986;11:792–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Galante J, Schultz A, Dewald RL, Ray RD. Forces acting in the Milwaukee brace on patients undergoing treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1970;52:498–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gepstein R, Leitner Y, Zohar E, Angel I, Shabat S, Pekarsky I, Friesem T, Folman Y, Katz A, Fredman B. Effectiveness of the Charleston bending brace in the treatment of single-curve idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002;22:84–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hibbs RA. An operation for progressive spinal deformities. New York Med J. 1911;93:1013–1016.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hibbs RA, Risser JC, Ferguson AB. Scoliosis treated by the fusion operation: an end-result study of three hundred and sixty cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1931;13:91–104.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hippocrates. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates [translated by Adams F]. New York, NY: Wm Wood; 1849.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hooper CR, Reed FE, Price CT. The Charleston Brace. An Orthotist’s Guide to Scoliosis Management. Milwaukee, WI: Scoliosis Research Society; 2003.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Janicki JA, Poe-Kochert C, Armstrong DG, Thompson GH. A comparison of the thoracolumbosacral orthoses and providence orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results using the new SRS inclusion and assessment criteria for bracing studies. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27:369–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Katz DE, Richards BS, Browne RH, Herring JA. A comparison between the Boston brace and the Charleston bending brace in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 1997;22:1302–1312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lindh M. The effect of sagittal curve changes on brace correction of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 1980;5:26–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lonstein JE, Carlson JM. The prediction of curve progression in untreated idiopathic scoliosis during growth. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66:1061–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lonstein JE, Winter RB. The Milwaukee brace for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A review of one thousand and twenty patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994;76:1207–1221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lovett RH, Brewster AH. The treatment of scoliosis by a different method from that usually employed. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1924;6:847–857.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lovett RW. History of scoliosis. In: Lateral Curvature of the Spine and Round Shoulders. Philadelphia, PA: P. Blackiston’s Son & Co; 1916:1–7.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marketos SG, Skiadas PK. Galen: a pioneer of spine research. Spine. 1999;24:2358–2362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moe JH. The Milwaukee brace in the treatment of scoliosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1971;77:18–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moen KY, Nachemson AL. Treatment of scoliosis. An historical perspective. Spine. 1999;24:2570–2575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mostofi SB, ed. Who’s Who in Orthopedics. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nachemson AL, Peterson LE. Effectiveness of treatment with a brace in girls who have adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A prospective, controlled study based on data from the Brace Study of the Scoliosis Research Society. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995;77:815–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    National Scoliosis Foundation. A new alternative treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. Available at: www.scoliosis.org/resources/medicalupdates/spinecor.php. Accessed July 29, 2008.
  37. 37.
    Newton P. Idiopathic scoliosis. In: Morrissey RT, Weinstein SL, eds. Lovell & Winter’s Pediatric Orthopaedics. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:693–762.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Noonan KJ. Nonsurgical techniques in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. In: Weinstein SL, ed. The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:371–383.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Noonan KJ, Weinstein SL, Jacobson WC, Dolan LA. Use of the Milwaukee brace for progressive idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996;78:557–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ogilvie JW. Historical aspects of scoliosis. In: Lonstein J, Winter R, Bradford D, Ogilvie J, eds. Moe’s Textbook of Scoliosis and Other Spinal Deformities. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1995:1–5.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ogilvie JW, Braun J, Argyle V, Nelson L, Meade M, Ward K. The search for idiopathic scoliosis genes. Spine. 2006;31:679–681.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Paré A. The Works of that Famous Churugion Ambrose Paré [translated by Johnson T, Cotes T, Young R]. London, UK: Clark J; 1634.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Peltier LF, ed. Orthopaedics: A History and Iconography. Novato, CA: Norman Publishing; 1993.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Piazza MR, Bassett GS. Curve progression after treatment with the Wilmington brace for idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 1990;10:39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ponseti IV, Friedman B. Prognosis in idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1950;32:381–395.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Price CT, Scott DS, Reed FE Jr, Riddick MF. Nighttime bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the Charleston bending brace. Preliminary report. Spine. 1990;15:1294–1299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Price CT, Scott DS, Reed FR Jr, Sproul JT, Riddick MF. Nighttime bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the Charleston bending brace: long-term follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997;17:703–707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Richards BS, Bernstein RM, D’Amato CR, Thompson GH. Standardization of criteria for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis brace studies: SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. Spine. 2005;30:2068–2075.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Riesz PB. The life of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;165:1533–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Risser JC. The application of body casts for the correction of scoliosis. Instr Course Lect. 1955;12:255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Risser JC. The iliac apophysis: an invaluable sign in the management of scoliosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1958;11:111–119.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Risser JC. Scoliosis: past and present. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1964;46:167–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rivard CH, Coillard C. SpineCor System Bracing Manual. Milwaukee, WI: Scoliosis Research Society; 2002.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Röntgen, WC. Ueber eine neue Art von Strahlen. Annalen der Physik. 1895;300:12–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sanders JO, Khoury JG, Kishan S, Browne RH, Mooney JF 3rd, Arnold KD, McConnell SJ, Bauman JA, Finegold DN. Predicting scoliosis progression from skeletal maturity: a simplified classification during adolescence. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:540–553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sauvegrain J, Nahum H, Bronstein H. Study of bone maturation of the elbow [in French]. Ann Radiol (Paris). 1962;5:542–550.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sayre LA. Yale LM, George WA, eds. Lectures on Orthopedic Surgery and Disease of the Joints. New York, NY: D. Appleton & Colleagues;1892.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sayre JW. Lewis Albert Sayre. Spine. 1995;20:1091–1096.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Smith AD. Scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1958;40:505–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Trivedi JM, Thomson JD. Results of Charleston bracing in skeletally immature patients with idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2001;21:277–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. The Debate on Clothing as a Cause of Scoliosis. Available at: www.uihealthcare.com/depts/medmuseum/wallexhibits/scoliosis/history/scolhistory.html. Accessed February 1, 2009.
  62. 62.
    Watts HG, Hall JE, Stanish W. The Boston brace system for the treatment of low thoracic and lumbar scoliosis by the use of a girdle without superstructure. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1977;126:87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yrjönen T, Ylikoski M, Schlenzka D, Kinnunen R, Poussa M. Effectiveness of the Providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study of 36 female patients. Eur Spine J. 2006;15:1139–1143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zampini JM, Sherk HH. Lewis A. Sayre: the first Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery in America. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2263–2267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reginald S. Fayssoux
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert H. Cho
    • 1
  • Martin J. Herman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsSt Christopher’s Hospital for ChildrenPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations