Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®

, Volume 467, Issue 8, pp 2073–2076 | Cite as

Normal Q-angle in an Adult Nigerian Population

  • Bade B. Omololu
  • Olusegun S. Ogunlade
  • Vinod K. Gopaldasani
Original Article Research


The Q-angle has been studied among the adult Caucasian population with the establishment of reference values. Scientists are beginning to accept the concept of different human races. Physical variability exists between various African ethnic groups and Caucasians as exemplified by differences in anatomic features such as a flat nose compared with a pointed nose, wide rather than narrow faces, and straight rather than curly hair. Therefore, we cannot assume the same Q-angle values will be applicable to Africans and Caucasians. We established a baseline reference value for normal Q-angles among asymptomatic Nigerian adults. The Q-angles of the left and right knees were measured using a goniometer in 477 Nigerian adults (354 males; 123 females) in the supine and standing positions. The mean Q-angles for men were 10.7° ± 2.2° in the supine position and 12.3° ± 2.2° in the standing position in the right knee. The left knee Q-angles in men were 10.5° ± 2.6° in the supine position and 11.7° ± 2.8° in the standing position. In women, the mean Q-angles for the right knee were 21° ± 4.8° in the supine position and 22.8° ± 4.7° in the standing position. The mean Q-angles for the left knee in women were 20.9° ± 4.6° in the supine position and 22.7° ± 4.6° in the standing position. We observed a difference in Q-angles in the supine and standing positions for all participants. The Q-angle in adult Nigerian men is comparable to that of adult Caucasian men, but the Q-angle of Nigerian women is greater than that of their Caucasian counterparts.


Supine Position Standing Position Tibial Tuberosity Anterior Knee Pain Left Knee 
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Copyright information

© The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bade B. Omololu
    • 1
  • Olusegun S. Ogunlade
    • 1
  • Vinod K. Gopaldasani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity College HospitalIbadanNigeria

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