Rapid processing of perovskite solar cells through pulsed photonic annealing: a review

  • Amir H. Ghahremani
  • Blake Martin
  • Krishnamraju Ankireddy
  • Thad DruffelEmail author


The performance of materials in perovskite solar cells has garnered a fair amount of interest because they are solution processable and thus a prime target for roll-to-roll coating. The precursor materials are typically prepared in solutions and deposited using common evaporative techniques, some that can be adapted to roll-to-roll manufacturing. However, there are some existing challenges that should be overcome to allow for the films to be stable in ambient conditions such that they can be deposited more cost-effectively. In this work, we report on solution engineering that enables deposition of the perovskite materials in an ambient environment using roll-to-roll applicable technologies. These engineered chemistries were also designed to enable rapid post-processing steps to limit the web length within a conventional oven. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films achieved consistent morphology and crystallinity, and performed well in solar cell devices. Results of several chemistries and processes will be presented.


Rapid thermal annealing Intense pulsed light Perovskite solar cell 



The authors acknowledge the Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research at the University of Louisville for their financial support and research facilities.


  1. 1.
    Green, MA, et al., “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (version 50).” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl., 25 (7) 668–676 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kojima, A, et al., “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells.” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131 (17) 6050–6051 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Park, N-G, “Organometal Perovskite Light Absorbers Toward a 20% Efficiency Low-Cost Solid-State Mesoscopic Solar Cell.” J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 4 (15) 2423–2429 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stranks, SD, et al., “Electron-Hole Diffusion Lengths Exceeding 1 Micrometer in an Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Absorber.” Science, 342 (6156) 341–344 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marchioro, A, et al., “Unravelling the Mechanism of Photoinduced Charge Transfer Processes in Lead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells.” Nature Photon., 8 (3) 250–255 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Perez-Gutierrez, E, et al., “Organic Solar Cells All Made by Blade and Slot-Die Coating Techniques.” Solar Energy, 146 79–84 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lau, CFJ, et al., “CsPbIBr2 perovskite solar cell by spray-assisted deposition.” ACS Energy Lett., 1 (3) 573–577 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hu, Q, et al., “Large-Area Perovskite Nanowire Arrays Fabricated by Large-Scale Roll-to-Roll Micro-Gravure Printing and Doctor Blading.” Nanoscale, 8 (9) 5350–5357 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Druffel, T, et al., “Intense Pulsed Light Processing for Photovoltaic Manufacturing.” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, 174 359–369 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kang, H, Sowade, E, Baumann, RR, “Direct Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Inkjet-Printed Copper Oxide Layers Within Six Milliseconds.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 6 (3) 1682–1687 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dharmadasa, R, Dharmadasa, I, Druffel, T, “Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Electrodeposited CdS Thin Films.” Adv. Eng. Mater., 16 (11) 1351–1361 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pei, L, Li, Y-F, “Rapid and Efficient Intense Pulsed Light Reduction of Graphene Oxide Inks for Flexible Printed Electronics.” RSC Adv., 7 (81) 51711–51720 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dhage, SR, Kim, H-S, Hahn, HT, “Cu(In, Ga) Se2 Thin Film Preparation from a Cu (In, Ga) Metallic Alloy and Se Nanoparticles by an Intense Pulsed Light Technique.” J. Electronic Mater., 40 (2) 122–126 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gupta, A, et al., “Intense Pulsed Light, a Promising Technique to Develop Molybdenum Sulfide Catalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.” Nanotechnology, 30 175401 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qiu, L, et al., “Fiber-Shaped Perovskite Solar Cells with High Power Conversion Efficiency.” Small, 12 (18) 2419–2424 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhou, H, et al., “Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.” Science, 345 (6196) 542–546 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Troughton, J, et al., “Photonic Flash-Annealing of Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells in 1 ms.” J. Mater. Chem. A, 4 (9) 3471–3476 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Muydinov, R, et al., “Crystallisation Behaviour of CH3NH3PbI3 Films: The Benefits of Sub-second Flash Lamp Annealing.” Thin Solid Films, 653 204–214 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lavery, BW, et al., “Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of CH3NH3PbI3 Solar Cells.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 8 (13) 8419–8426 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ankireddy, K, Lavery, BW, Druffel, T, “Atmospheric Processing of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Intense Pulsed Light Sintering.” J. Electronic Mater., 47 (2) 1285–1292 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ding, Y, et al., “Surfactant Enhanced Surface Coverage of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx Perovskite for Highly Efficient Mesoscopic Solar Cells.” J. Power Sources, 272 351–355 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ankireddy, K, et al., “Rapid Thermal Annealing of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films by Intense Pulsed Light with Aid of Diiodomethane Additive.” J. Mater. Chem. A, 6 (20) 9378–9383 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liang, PW, et al., “Additive Enhanced Crystallization of Solution-Processed Perovskite for Highly Efficient Planar-Heterojunction Solar Cells.” Adv. Mater., 26 (22) 3748–3754 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tarnovsky, AN, et al., “Photodissociation Dynamics of Diiodomethane in Solution.” Chem. Phys. Lett., 312 121–130 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhu, M, et al., “Millisecond-Pulsed Photonically-Annealed Tin Oxide Electron Transport Layers for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.” J. Mater. Chem. A, 5 (46) 24110–24115 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Das, S, et al., “High-Performance Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells by Using a Combination of Ultrasonic Spray-Coating and Low Thermal Budget Photonic Curing.” ACS Photon., 2 (6) 680–686 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Conn Center for Renewable Energy ResearchUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations