A regioselective coating onto microarray channels of bamboo with chitosan-based silver nanoparticles

  • Omar Ginoble PandoliEmail author
  • Raquel S. Martins
  • Karen L. G. De Toni
  • Sidnei Paciornik
  • Marcos H. P. Maurício
  • Renan M. C. Lima
  • Nikolas B. Padilha
  • Sonia Letichevsky
  • Roberto R. Avillez
  • Elton J. R. Rodrigues
  • Khosrow Ghavami


In this investigation, bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro) timbers were coated selectively into vascular vessel bundles with a potential antimicrobial colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Electric charge and size of Ag-NPs, with different charged organic ligands (trisodium citrate and chitosan), affect their self-sorting in different anatomical structures of bamboo when submitted up to 20 impregnation cycles through a vacuum system. Physicochemical characterization of Ag-NPs was performed by spectroscopic techniques and electron microscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize natural bamboo. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the metal coating in bamboo specimens was performed with X-ray microtomography (μCT), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. μCT revealed a gradient deposition of citrate-capped Ag-NPs into the parenchyma tissue with the higher concentration at the outer part of the bamboo. On the other hand, the chitosan-capped Ag-NPs were deposited mainly in the vessel bundles.


Bamboo Silver nanofiller Nanocoating Bionanocomposite Regioselective coating Hybrid bio-based composite 



This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnologico-Brasil (CNPq) (Grant Number 458302/2013-9) and the Serrapilheira Institute (Grant Number Serra-1709-17482) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001. O.P. thank FAPERJ-Brazil for the JCNE fellowship (E-26/203.281/2016). PhD student R. S. M, Post-Doc E.J.R.R. are grateful to CNPq for scholar fellowships. We thank Dr. Julio C. Spadotto and Prof. Guillermo Solorzano for the HR-TEM images and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisa Fisica (CBPF) for the use of their facilities.


  1. 1.
    Šupová, M, Martynková, GS, Barabaszová, K, “Effect of Nanofillers Dispersion in Polymer Matrices: A Review.” Sci. Adv. Mater., 3 1–25 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vaia, RA, Wagner, HD, “Framework for Nanocomposites.” Mater. Today, 7 32–37 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Camargo, PHC, Satyanarayana, KG, Wypych, F, “Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and New Application Opportunities.” Mater. Res., 12 1–39 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Siti, S, Abdul, HPS, Wan, WO, Jawai, M, “Bamboo Based Biocomposites Material, Design and Applications.” In: Mastai, Y (ed.) Materials Science—Advanced Topics. InTech, Rijeka (2013) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liese, W, Köhl, M, Bamboo, The Plant and Its Uses, Vol. 10. Springer, Berlin, 2015Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yuen, JQ, Fung, T, Ziegler, AD, “Carbon Stocks in Bamboo Ecosystems Worldwide: Estimates and Uncertainties.” For. Ecol. Manag., 393 113–138 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nath, AJ, Lal, R, Das, AK, “Managing Woody Bamboos for Carbon Farming and Carbon Trading.” Glob. Ecol. Conserv., 3 654–663 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wani, SH, “Phytoremediation: Curing Soil Problems with Crops.” Afr. J. Agric. Res., 7 3991–4002 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liese, W, “Anatomy and Properties of Bamboo.” Bamboo Workshop Hangzhou, pp. 196–393, 1985Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Youssefian, S, Rahbar, N, “Molecular Origin of Strength and Stiffness in Bamboo Fibrils.” Sci. Rep., 5 11116 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tan, T, et al., “Mechanical Properties of Functionally Graded Hierarchical Bamboo Structures.” Acta Biomater., 7 3796–3803 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhu, H, et al., “Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.” Chem. Rev., 116 9305–9374 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang, Y, Liu, X, Wang, S, Li, L, Dou, S, “Bio-Nanotechnology in High-Performance Supercapacitors.” Adv. Energy Mater., 1700592 1–23 (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    De, S, Balu, AM, Van Der Waal, JC, Luque, R, “Biomass-Derived Porous Carbon Materials: Synthesis and Catalytic Applications.” ChemCatChem, 7 1608–1629 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kuan, C-M, York, RL, Cheng, C-M, “Lignocellulose-Based Analytical Devices: Bamboo as an Analytical Platform for Chemical Detection.” Sci. Rep., 5 18570 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Domachuk, P, Tsioris, K, Omenetto, FG, Kaplan, DL, “Bio-microfluidics: Biomaterials and Biomimetic Designs.” Adv. Mater., 22 249–260 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tanaka, E, “Mechanisms of Bamboo Witches’ Broom Symptom Development Caused by Endophytic/Epiphytic Fungi.” Plant Signal. Behav., 5 415–418 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hamid, NH, Sulaiman, O, Mohammad, A, Ahmad Ludin, N, “The Decay Resistance and Hyphae Penetration of Bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii Decayed by White and Brown Rot Fungi.” Int. J. For. Res. (2012). Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beraldo, AL, Sette, LD, Rodolfo Gomes, MBF, “Occurrence of Filamentous Fungi on Dendrocalamus giganteus in Brazil.” VIII World Bamboo Congress, Bangkpk, Thailand, Vol. 1, 2009.
  20. 20.
    Nikolic, M, Lawther, JM, Sanadi, AR, “Use of Nanofillers in Wood Coatings: A Scientific Review.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 12 445–461 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marzi, T, “Nanostructured Materials for Protection and Reinforcement of Timber Structures: A Review and Future Challenges.” Constr. Build. Mater., 97 119–130 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fufa, SM, Jelle, BP, Hovde, PJ, Rorvik, PM, “Coated Wooden Claddings and the Influence of Nanoparticles on the Weathering Performance.” Prog. Org. Coat., 75 72–78 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li, J, et al., “Durable, Self-Cleaning and Superhydrophobic Bamboo Timber Surfaces Based on TiO2 Films Combined with Fluoroalkylsilane.” Ceram. Int., 42 9621–9629 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li, J, et al., “Reversibly Light-Switchable Wettability Between Superhydrophobicity and Superhydrophilicity of Hybrid ZnO/Bamboo Surfaces via Alternation of UV Irradiation and Dark Storage.” Prog. Org. Coat., 87 155–160 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li, J, et al., “Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Bamboo Timber Based on an Anatase TiO2 Film for Acid Rain Protection and Flame Retardancy.” RSC Adv., 5 62265–62272 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jin, C, et al., “Silver Mirror Reaction as an Approach to Construct a Durable, Robust Superhydrophobic Surface of Bamboo Timber with High Conductivity.” J. Alloys Compd., 635 300–306 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yu, Y, et al., “Surface Functionalization of Bamboo with Nanostructured ZnO.” Wood Sci. Technol., 46 781–790 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rao, F, et al., “Enhancement of Bamboo Surface Photostability by Application of Clear Coatings Containing a Combination of Organic/Inorganic UV Absorbers.” Prog. Org. Coat. (2018). Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Singh, BN, et al., “Antimicrobial Nanotechnologies: What are the Current Possibilities?” Curr. Sci., 108 1210–1213 (2015)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Iavicoli, I, Leso, V, Beezhold, DH, Shvedova, AA, “Nanotechnology in Agriculture: Opportunities, Toxicological Implications, and Occupational Risks.” Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 329 96–111 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wohlleben, W, et al., “On the Lifecycle of Nanocomposites: Comparing Released Fragments and their In-Vivo Hazards from Three Release Mechanisms and Four Nanocomposites.” Small, 7 2384–2395 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kah, M, Kookana, RS, Gogos, A, Bucheli, TD, “A Critical Evaluation of Nanopesticides and Nanofertilizers Against Their Conventional Analogues.” Nat. Nanotechnol., 13 677–684 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duhan, JS, et al., “Nanotechnology: The New Perspective in Precision Agriculture.” Biotechnol. Rep., 15 11–23 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shrivastava, S, et al., “Characterization of Enhanced Antibacterial Effects of Novel Silver Nanoparticles.” Nanotechnology, 18 225103 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bhardwaj, A, et al., “Nanotechnology in Dentistry: Present and Future.” J. Int. Oral Health, 6 121–126 (2014)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raghavendra, GM, Jung, J, Kim, D, Seo, J, “Effect of Chitosan Silver Nanoparticle Coating on Functional Properties of Korean Traditional Paper.” Prog. Org. Coat., 110 16–23 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pandoli, O, et al., “Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Potential Antifungical Activity for Bamboo Treatment.” Key Eng. Mater., 668 86–91 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pandoli, O, et al., “Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles: An Effective Nano-filler Material to Prevent Fungal Proliferation in Bamboo.” RSC Adv., 6 98325–98336 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Agnihotri, S, Mukherji, S, Mukherji, S, “Size-Controlled Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Over the Range 5–100 nm Using the Same Protocol and Their Antibacterial Efficacy.” RSC Adv., 4 3974–3983 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dixon, PG, et al., “3D Printed Structures for Modeling the Young’s Modulus of Bamboo Parenchyma.” Acta Biomater., 68 90–98 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Frost, CG, Mutton, L, “Heterogeneous Catalytic Synthesis Using Microreactor Technology.” Green Chem., 12 1687 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Peng, G, et al., “Detection of Complex Vascular System in Bamboo Node by X-ray μCT Imaging Technique.” Holzforschung, 68 223 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Salvati, E, et al., “Multiscale Analysis of Bamboo Deformation Mechanisms Following NaOH Treatment Using X-ray and Correlative Microscopy.” Acta Biomater., 72 329–341 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ahvenainen, P, et al., “Spatially-Localized Bench-Top X-ray Scattering Reveals Tissue-Specific Microfibril Orientation in Moso Bamboo.” Plant Methods (2017). Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Palombini, FL, Kindlein, W, de Oliveira, BF, de Araujo Mariath, JE, “Bionics and Design: 3D Microstructural Characterization and Numerical Analysis of Bamboo Based on X-ray Microtomography.” Mater. Charact., 120 357–368 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hwang, BG, Ahn, S, Lee, SJ, “Use of Gold Nanoparticles to Detect Water Uptake in Vascular Plants.” PLoS ONE, 9 e114902 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Van den Bulcke, J, Boone, M, Van Acker, J, Van Hoorebeke, L, “Three-Dimensional X-ray Imaging and Analysis of Fungi on and in Wood.” Microsc. Microanal., 15 395–402 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bessières, J, et al., “Wood-Coating Layer Studies by X-ray Imaging.” Wood Sci. Technol., 47 853–867 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Machado, AHL, Pandoli, O, Miranda, LSM, de Souza, ROMA, “Microreactors: New Opportunities in Chemical Synthesis.” Revista Virtual de Química, 6 1076–1085 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schindelin, J, et al., “Fiji: An Open-Source Platform for Biological-Image Analysis.” Nat. Methods, 9 676–682 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Grouchko, M, Popov, I, Uvarov, V, Magdassi, S, Kamyshny, A, “Coalescence of Silver Nanoparticles at Room Temperature: Unusual Crystal Structure Transformation and Dendrite Formation Induced by Self-assembly.” Langmuir, 25 2501–2503 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Szymańska, E, Winnicka, K, “Stability of Chitosan—A Challenge for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications.” Mar. Drugs, 13 1819–1846 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar Ginoble Pandoli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raquel S. Martins
    • 1
  • Karen L. G. De Toni
    • 2
  • Sidnei Paciornik
    • 3
  • Marcos H. P. Maurício
    • 3
  • Renan M. C. Lima
    • 3
  • Nikolas B. Padilha
    • 3
  • Sonia Letichevsky
    • 3
  • Roberto R. Avillez
    • 3
  • Elton J. R. Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Khosrow Ghavami
    • 4
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentPUC-RIORio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Rio de Janeiro Botanical GardenRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Chemical and Materials Engineering DepartmentPUC-RioRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Civil Engineering DepartmentPUC-RioRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations