Advertisement

Observation of sessile droplet freezing on textured micropillar surfaces via visualization and thermography

  • Yuan Wang
  • Zhen-guo Wang
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Sessile droplet freezing on textured micropillar surfaces was observed visually and thermographically. Hydrophobic surfaces with three different topographies were selected, the contact angles of water on which were 141°, 102°, and 138°. Droplet surface temperature distribution measurements from lateral view enabled quantitative evaluation of the freezing stages. According to the experiment, it was found that the surface hydrophobicity decreases with the increasing pillar distance. Only a slight increase in hydrophobicity was found with the decreasing pillar diameter. The liquid water droplet experienced five successive stages to become fully frozen. It was also confirmed that the droplet’s opaque appearance is caused by the sudden ice shell formation at the ice incipience. Besides, the solidification frontier (SF) movement inside the droplet was analyzed. The freezing rate was higher at the SF edge. Moreover, the textured surfaces with higher hydrophobicity were prone to further postpone the droplet’s freezing onset. However, surface topography showed minor impact on the droplet surface recalescence stage duration. Additionally, the droplet internal solidification stage lasted longer on samples with higher hydrophobicity.

Keywords

Droplet freezing Micropillar surface Hydrophobic Freezing stages Onset delay 

List of symbols

a

Micropillar diameter

b

Micropillar interval distance

fs

Total area of solid–liquid interface in a plane geometrical area of unity parallel to the rough surface

fv

Total area of liquid–vapor interface in a plane geometrical area of unity parallel to the rough surface

h

Micropillar height

r

Roughness factor

Tsur

Surface temperature

θC

Cassie–Baxter’s contact angle

θv

Contact angle for the vapor–liquid interface

θW

Wenzel’s contact angle

θY

Young’s contact angle

CA

Contact angle

SF

Solidification frontier

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11872373). The authors also would like to thank Dr. Xiao-fei Yue in the National University of Defense Technology for her collaboration, especially in the preparation of the structured surface samples.

References

  1. 1.
    Wang, Z-J, Kwon, D-J, Lawrence DeVries, K, Park, J-M, “Frost Formation and Anti-icing Performance of a Hydrophobic Coating on Aluminum.” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 60 132–137 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sato, T, Taguchi, H, Kobayashi, H, Kojima, T, Okai, K, Fujita, K, Masaki, D, Hongoh, M, Ohta, T, “Development Study of Precooled-Cycle Hypersonic Turbojet Engine for Flight Demonstration.” Acta Astronaut., 61 367–375 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hejazi, V, Sobolev, K, Nosonovsky, M, “From Superhydrophobicity to Icephobicity: Forces and Interaction Analysis.” Sci. Rep., 3 2194 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sojoudi, H, Wang, M, Boscher, ND, McKinley, GH, Gleason, KK, “Durable and Scalable Icephobic Surfaces: Similarities and Distinctions from Superhydrophobic Surfaces.” Soft Matter, 12 1938–1963 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nath, S, Ahmadi, SF, Boreyko, JB, “A Review of Condensation Frosting.” Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 21 81–101 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu, X, Dai, W, Xu, W, Tang, L, “Mesoscale Investigation of Frost Formation on a Cold Surface.” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 31 1043–1048 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hayashi, Y, Aoki, A, Adachi, S, Hori, K, “Study of Frost Properties Correlating With Frost Formation Types.” J. Heat Transf., 99 239–245 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu, Z, Zhang, X, Wang, H, Meng, S, Cheng, S, “Influences of Surface Hydrophilicity on Frost Formation on a Vertical Cold Plate Under Natural Convection Conditions.” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 31 789–794 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carte, AE, “The Freezing of Water Droplets.” Proc. Phys. Soc. B, 69 1028–1037 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suzuki, S, Nakajima, A, Yoshida, N, Sakai, M, Hashimoto, A, Kameshima, Y, Okada, K, “Freezing of Water Droplets on Silicon Surfaces Coated with Various Silanes.” Chem. Phys. Lett., 445 37–41 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, H, Tang, L, Wu, X, Dai, W, Qiu, Y, “Fabrication and Anti-frosting Performance of Super Hydrophobic Coating Based on Modified Nano-sized Calcium Carbonate and Ordinary Polyacrylate.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 253 8818–8824 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, Z, Gou, Y, Wang, J, Cheng, S, “Frost Formation on a Super-Hydrophobic Surface Under Natural Convection Conditions.” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 51 5975–5982 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Piucco, RO, Hermes, CJL, Melo, C, Barbosa, JR, Jr, “A Study of Frost Nucleation on Flat Surfaces.” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 32 1710–1715 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tourkine, P, Le Merrer, M, Quéré, D, “Delayed Freezing on Water Repellent Materials.” Langmuir, 25 7214–7216 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim, K, Lee, K-S, “Frosting and Defrosting Characteristics of a Fin According to Surface Contact Angle.” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 54 2758–2764 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang, L, Liu, Z, Liu, Y, Gou, Y, Wang, L, “Effect of Contact Angle on Water Droplet Freezing Process on a Cold Flat Surface.” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 40 74–80 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim, K, Lee, K-S, “Characteristics and Performance Evaluation of Surface-Treated Louvered-Fin Heat Exchangers Under Frosting and Wet Conditions.” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 55 6676–6681 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boinovich, LB, Emelyanenko, AM, “Anti-icing Potential of Superhydrophobic Coatings.” Mendeleev Commun., 23 3–10 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim, K, Lee, K-S, “Frosting and Defrosting Characteristics of Surface-Treated Louvered-Fin Heat Exchangers: Effects of Fin Pitch and Experimental Conditions.” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 60 505–511 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang, F, Liang, C, Yang, M, Fan, C, Zhang, X, “Effects of Surface Characteristic on Frosting and Defrosting Behaviors of Fin-Tube Heat Exchangers.” Appl. Thermal Eng., 75 1126–1132 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jing, T, Kim, Y, Lee, S, Kim, D, Kim, J, Hwang, W, “Frosting and Defrosting on Rigid Superhydrohobic Surface.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 276 37–42 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang, Y, Xue, J, Wang, Q, Chen, Q, Ding, J, “Verification of Icephobic/Anti-icing Properties of a Superhydrophobic Surface.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5 3370–3381 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sastry, S, “Water—Ins and Outs of Ice Nucleation.” Nature, 438 746–747 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jung, S, Dorrestijn, M, Raps, D, Das, A, Megaridis, CM, Poulikakos, D, “Are Superhydrophobic Surfaces Best for Icephobicity?” Langmuir, 27 3059–3066 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hindmarsh, JP, Russell, AB, Chen, XD, “Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Temperature Transition of a Suspended Freezing Water Droplet.” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 46 1199–1213 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jieteng, W, Zhongliang, L, Yujun, G, Xinhua, Z, Shuiyuan, C, “Deformation of Freezing Water Droplets on a Cold Copper Surface.” Sci. China Technol. Sci., 49 590–600 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alizadeh, A, Yamada, M, Li, R, Shang, W, Otta, S, Zhong, S, Ge, L, Dhinojwala, A, Conway, KR, Bahadur, V, Vinciquerra, AJ, Stephens, B, Blohm, ML, “Dynamics of Ice Nucleation on Water Repellent Surfaces.” Langmuir, 28, 3180–3186 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chaudhary, G, Li, R, “Freezing of Water Droplets on Solid Surfaces: An Experimental and Numerical Study.” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 57 86–93 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    James, DW, “The Thermal Diffusivity of Ice and Water Between −40 and + 60°C.” J. Mater. Sci., 3 540–543 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zou, M, Beckford, S, Wei, R, Ellis, C, Hatton, G, Miller, MA, “Effects of Surface Roughness and Energy on Ice Adhesion Strength.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 257 3786–3792 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim, B, Seo, S-B, Bae, K, Kim, D-Y, Baek, C-H, Kim, H-M, “Stable Superhydrophobic Si Surface Produced by Using Reactive Ion Etching Process Combined with Hydrophobic Coatings.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 232 928–935 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yue, X, Liu, W, Wang, Y, “Effects of Black Silicon Surface Structures on Wetting Behaviors, Single Water Droplet Icing and Frosting Under Natural Convection Conditions.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 307 (Part A) 278–286 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yue, X, Liu, W, Wang, Y, “Freezing Delay, Frost Accumulation and Droplets Condensation Properties of Micro- or Hierarchically-Structured Silicon Surfaces.” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 126 442–451 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zeng, Y, Fan, X, Chen, J, He, S, Yi, Z, Ye, X, Yi, Y, “Preparation of Composite Micro/Nano Structure on the Silicon Surface by Reactive Ion Etching: Enhanced Anti-reflective and Hydrophobic Properties.” Superlattices Microstruct., 117 144–154 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wenzel, RN, “Resistance of Solid Surfaces to Wetting by Water.” Ind. Eng. Chem., 28 988–994 (1936)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cassie, ABD, Baxter, S, “Wettability of Porous Surfaces.” Trans. Faraday Soc., 30 546–551 (1944)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    He, Y, Jiang, C, Wang, S, Yin, H, Yuan, W, “Control Wetting State Transition by Micro-Rod Geometry.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 285 682–687 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang, Y, Wang, Z-G, “Sessile Droplet Freezing on Polished and Micro-Micro-Hierarchical Silicon Surfaces.” Appl. Thermal Eng., 137 66–73 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jin, Z, Jin, S, Yang, Z, “An Experimental Investigation into the Icing and Melting Process of a Water Droplet impinging onto a Superhydrophobic surface.” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron., 56 2047–2053 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tanner, FX, “Droplet Freezing and Solidification.” In: Ashgriz, N (ed.) Handbook of Atomization and Sprays. Springer, Berlin (2011)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hao, P, Zhang, CLX, “Freezing of Sessile Water Droplets on Surfaces with Various Roughness and Wettability.” Appl. Phys. Lett., 104 161609 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Aerospace Science and EngineeringNational University of Defense TechnologyHunan, ChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Science and Technology on Scramjet LaboratoryNational University of Defense TechnologyHunan, ChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations