Synergistic effect of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles on polyaniline incorporated epoxy/2pack coatings for splash zone applications

  • Mohammad Asif AlamEmail author
  • Ubair Abdus Samad
  • El-Sayed M. Sherif
  • Asiful Seikh
  • Saeed M. Al-Zahrani
  • Nabeel H. Alharthi
  • Manawwar AlamEmail author


In this work, epoxy/2pack coatings containing polyaniline (PANI) in combination with Ag and ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized. The nanoparticles were incorporated with bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin and polyamino-amide. The mechanical properties of the fabricated coatings, such as the pendulum hardness, scratch resistance, and impact strength, were studied. The composition of the fabricated coatings was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurements. The thermal degradation and indentations were characterized through the use of differential scanning calorimetry and nano-indentation techniques, respectively. The surface morphology of the fabricated coatings was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The synergistic effects of the Ag and ZnO nanoparticles on the corrosion resistance of the coatings after different exposure periods in 3.5% NaCl solutions were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. All the results were consistent with one another and confirmed that the addition of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles improved the mechanical properties of the coatings. This effect also led to a notable increase in the corrosion resistance of the PANI coatings.


Epoxy coatings Polyaniline Nanoparticles Nano-indentation Corrosion resistance Surface morphology 



The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding of this research through the Research Group Project No. RGP-160.


  1. 1.
    Samad, UA, Alam, MA, Sherif, El-Sayed M, Alothman, O, Seikh, AH, Al-Zahrani, SM, “Manufacturing and Characterization of Corrosion Resistant Epoxy/2Pack Coatings Incorporated with Polyaniline Conductive Polymer.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 10 5599–5613 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Samui, AB, Phadnis, SM, “Manufacturing and Characterization of Corrosion Resistant Epoxy/2Pack Coatings Incorporated with Polyaniline Conductive Polymer.” Prog. Org. Coat., 54 263–267 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sathiyanarayanan, S, Muthukrishnan, S, Venkatachari, G, Trivedi, DC, “Corrosion Protection of Steel by Polyaniline (PANI) Pigmented Paint Coating.” Prog. Org. Coat., 53 (4) 297–301 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abu, YM, Aoki, K, “Corrosion Protection by Polyaniline-Coated Latex Microspheres.” J. Electroanal. Chem., 583 (1) 133–139 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luo, K, Shi, N, Sun, C, “Thermal Transition of Electrochemically Synthesized Polyaniline.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 91 (11) 2660–2664 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mathiazhagan, A, Joseph, R, “Nanotechnology—A New Prospective in Organic Coating—Review.” Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl., 2 (4) 225–237 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, F, Liu, P, “Conducting Polyaniline Nanoparticles and Their Dispersion for Waterborne Corrosion Protection Coatings.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3 (7) 2694–2702 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abdiryim, T, Gang, ZX, Jamal, R, “Comparative Studies of Solid-State Synthesized Polyaniline Doped with Inorganic Acids.” Mater. Chem. Phys., 90 (2–3) 367–372 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kalendov, A, Kalenda, P, Vesely, D, “Comparison of the Efficiency of Inorganic Nonmetal Pigments with Zinc Powder in Anticorrosion Paints.” Prog. Org. Coat., 57 (1) 1–10 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amo, BD, Romagnoli, R, Vetere, VF, Herńandez, LS, “Study of the Anticorrosive Properties of Zinc Phosphate in Vinyl Paints.” Prog. Org. Coat., 33 (1) 28–35 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kalendová, A, “Effects of Particle Sizes and Shapes of Zinc Metal on the Properties of Anticorrosive Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 46 (4) 324–332 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hermas, AEA, Salam, MA, Al-Juaid, SS, “In Situ Electrochemical Preparation of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline Composite on the Stainless Steel.” Prog. Org. Coat., 76 (12) 1810–1813 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu, ZA, Xie, YL, Wang, YX, Mo, LP, Yang, YY, Zhang, ZY, “Polyaniline/SnO2 Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor Applications.” Mater. Chem. Phys., 114 (2–3) 990–995 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gomez, H, Ram, MK, Alvi, F, Stefanakos, E, Kumar, A, “Novel Synthesis, Characterization, and Corrosion Inhibition Properties of Nanodiamond−Polyaniline Films.” J. Phys. Chem. C., 114 (44) 18797–18804 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ates, M, Topkayaa, E, “Nanocomposite Film Formations of Polyaniline via TiO2, Ag, and Zn, and Their Corrosion Protection Properties.” Prog. Org. Coat., 82 33–40 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alam, MA, Samad, UA, Khan, R, Alam, M, Al-Zahrani, SM, “Anti-corrosive Performance of Epoxy Coatings Containing Various Nano-Particles for Splash Zone Applications.” Korean J. Chem. Eng., 34 (8) 2301–2310 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shen, L, Wang, L, Liu, T, Chaobin, H, “Nanoindentation and Morphological Studies of Epoxy Nanocomposites.” Macromol. Mater. Eng., 291 (11) 1358–1366 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alam, MA, Sherif, El-Sayed M, Al-Zahrani, SM, “Nanoindentation and Morphological Studies of Epoxy Nanocomposites.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 8388–8400 (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang, Y, Jing, X, “Preparation of an Epoxy/Polyaniline Composite Coating and Its Passivation Effect on Cold Rolled Steel.” Polym. J., 36 374–379 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Armelin, E, Meneguzzi, Á, Carlos, AF, Carlos, A, “Preparation of an Epoxy/Polyaniline Composite Coating and Its Passivation Effect on Cold Rolled Steel.” Surf. Coat. Tech., 203 (24) 3763–3769 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alam, MA, Samad, UA, Sherif, El-Sayed M, Alothman, O, Seikh, AH, Al-Zahrani, SM, “Effects of Minor Additions of Polypyrrole on the Thermal, Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of Epoxy-2Pack Coatings.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 12 74–89 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saravanan, K, Sathiyanarayanan, S, Muralidharan, S, Azim, SS, Venkatachari, G, “Performance Evaluation of Polyaniline Pigmented Epoxy Coating for Corrosion Protection of Steel in Concrete Environment.” Prog. Org. Coat., 59 (2) 160–167 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wetzel, B, Haupert, F, Zhang, MQ, “Epoxy Nanocomposites with High Mechanical and Tribological Performance.” Composite Sci. Technol., 63 (14) 2055–2067 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oliver, W, Pharr, G, “An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments.” J. Mater. Res., 7 (6) 1564–1583 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khan, R, Azhar, MA, Anis, A, Alam, MA, Boumaza, M, Al-Zahrani, SM, “Facile Synthesis of Epoxy Nanocomposite Coatings Using Inorganic Nanoparticles for Enhanced Thermo-Mechanical Properties: A Comparative Study.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 13 (1) 159–169 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alharthi, N, Sherif, El-Sayed M, Abdo, HS, El-Abedin, SZ, “Effect of Nickel Content on the Corrosion Resistance of Iron-Nickel Alloys in Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid Pickling Solutions.” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. (2017). Article ID 1893672, 8 pages.
  27. 27.
    Sherif, El-Sayed M, El-Danaf, EA, Abdo, HS, El-Abedin, SZ, Al-Khazraji, H, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Protection of Hot Swaged Ti-54M Alloy in 2M HCl Pickling Solutions.” Metals, 7 (1) 29–41 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sherif, El-Sayed M, Abdo, HS, El Abedin, SZ, “Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Fe64/Ni36 and Fe55/Ni45 Alloys in 4.0% Sodium Chloride Solutions.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 12 1600–1611 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Seikh, AH, Halfa, H, Sherif, El-Sayed M, “Corrosion Resistance Performance of Newly Developed Cobalt-Free Maraging Steel Over Conventional Maraging Steel in Acidic Media.” Adv. Mater. Proc. Technol., 2 283–292 (2016)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    AlOtaibi, A, Sherif, El-Sayed M, Zinelis, S, Al-Jabbari, Y, “Corrosion Behavior of Two cp Titanium Dental Implants Connected by Cobalt Chromium Metal Superstructure in Artificial Saliva and the Influence of Immersion Time.” Inter. J. Electrochem. Sci., 11 5877–5890 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gopi, D, Sherif, El-Sayed M, Surendiran, M, Sakila, DMA, Kavitha, L, “Corrosion Inhibition by Benzotriazole Derivatives and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate as Corrosion Inhibitors for Copper in Ground Water at Different Temperatures.” Surf. Interf. Anal., 47 (5) 618–625 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sherif, EM, Park, SM, “Effects of 1,4-naphthoquinone on Aluminum Corrosion in 0.50 M sodium chloride solutions.” Electrochim. Acta., 51 (7) 1313–1321 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rehim, SSA, Hassan, HH, Amin, MA, “Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Al and Some Alloys in Sulphate Solutions Containing Halide Ions Investigated by an Impedance Technique.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 187 (3–4) 279–290 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Asif Alam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ubair Abdus Samad
    • 1
  • El-Sayed M. Sherif
    • 1
    • 2
  • Asiful Seikh
    • 1
  • Saeed M. Al-Zahrani
    • 1
    • 3
  • Nabeel H. Alharthi
    • 1
  • Manawwar Alam
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM)King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, Department of Physical ChemistryNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Chemical Engineering DepartmentKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations