The computer graphic simulation of a common spray painting artifact, called orange peel, is discussed. Orange peel distorts surface reflections and is commonplace in product design applications. The orange peel measurements from a standard industrial instrument are used to construct a height field, and this surface is rendered using traditional normal mapping techniques. Comparisons are made between real panels with orange peel and simulations of those panels. A simple visual model for detecting the presence of orange peel is also presented and evaluated. User testing of the model confirms that orange peel is more visible on dark paint colors than on light paint colors. The latter outcome suggests that to minimize application time, but still keep orange peel below visual threshold, paint application systems should be designed to take paint color into account.
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The authors would like to thank Byk-Gardner for providing us with Wave-Scan data and documents. We would also like to thank Ford Motor Company for providing sample orange peel panels and photographs. This study was partially funded by NSF Grant IIP-0438693.
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Konieczny, J., Meyer, G. Computer rendering and visual detection of orange peel. J Coat Technol Res 9, 297–307 (2012) doi:10.1007/s11998-011-9378-2
- Orange peel
- Computer graphics