Teaching Responsible Research and Innovation: A Phronetic Perspective
- 895 Downloads
Across the European research area and beyond, efforts are being mobilized to align research and innovation processes and products with societal values and needs, and to create mechanisms for inclusive priority setting and knowledge production. A central concern is how to foster a culture of “Responsible Research and Innovation” (RRI) among scientists and engineers. This paper focuses on RRI teaching at higher education institutions. On the basis of interviews and reviews of academic and policy documents, it highlights the generic aspects of teaching aimed at invoking a sense of care and societal obligation, and provides a set of exemplary cases of RRI-related teaching. It argues that the Aristotelian concept of phronesis can capture core properties of the objectives of RRI-related teaching activities. Teaching should nurture the students’ capacity in terms of practical wisdom, practical ethics, or administrative ability in order to enable them to act virtuously and responsibly in contexts which are often characterized by uncertainty, contention, and controversy.
KeywordsResponsible Research and Innovation RRI teaching Phronesis
The work reported in this paper was performed in the context of the “Higher Education Institutions and Responsible Research and Innovation” (HEIRRI) project, which has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 666004. The authors wish to acknowledge the valuable advice offered by two anonymous reviewers.
- Akaygun, S., Adadan, E., Sanyal, A., & Açikel, B. (2016). Nano and health: Teacher notes. Retrieved from http://www.irresistible-project.eu/index.php/en/resources/teaching-modules. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Aristotle. (2009). The Nicomachean ethics (D. Ross, Trans., revised with an introduction and notes by Lesley Brown). Oxford: OUP. ProQuest Ebook Central.Google Scholar
- Broerse, J. (2016). Integrating RRI in universities: Training future students in transdisciplinary research. In Keynote session at the 1st HEIRRI conference “Teaching Responsible Research and Innovation at University”, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
- Department of Information Science and Media Studies. (2015). ViSmedia—Visual surveillance technologies and journalism. Retrieved from http://www.uib.no/en/infomedia/94035/vismedia-%E2%80%93-visual-surveillance-technologies-and-journalism. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- European Union. (2012). Responsible Research and Innovation: Europe’s ability to respond to societal challenges. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/pdf/pub_public_engagement/responsible-research-and-innovation-leaflet_en.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Griessler, E., & Littig, B. (2006). Neosokratische Dialoge zu ethischen Fragen der Xenotransplantation. Ein Beitrag zur Bearbeitung ethischer Probleme in partizipativer Technikfolgenabschätzung. In E. Buchinger & U. Felt (Eds.), Technik- und Wissenschaftssoziologie in Österreich. Stand und Perspektiven. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie. Sonderheft (pp. 131–157). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
- Hutchings, B. (2006). Principles of enquiry-based learning. The University of Manchester, Centre for Excellence in Enquiry-Based Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ceebl.manchester.ac.uk/resources/papers/ceeblgr002.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- IRRESISTIBLE. (2014). The project bringing Responsible Research and Innovation into the classroom. A brief overview of the project. Retrieved from http://www.irresistible-project.eu/images/irr-mat/IRRESISTIBLE_folder_EN_02-2014.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Italian Presidency of the Council of the European Union. (2014). Rome declaration on Responsible Research and Innovation in Europe. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/pdf/rome_declaration_RRI_final_21_November.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Latour, B. (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Lindner, R., Kuhlmann, S., & Walhout, B. (2016). Developing an orientating framework for strategic reflection: The Res-AGorA responsibility navigator. Technikfolgenabschätzung: Theorie und Praxis, 25(2), 66–71.Google Scholar
- Mejlgaard, N., Buljan, I., Elías, N. S., Cayetano i Giralt, M., Griessler, E., Hansen, L. S., Lang, A., Marušić, A., Revuelta de la Poza, G., Strand, R., & Wuketich, M. (2016a). Stock taking/inventorying (WP2): Deliverable 2.2 state of the art review. Retrieved from http://www.guninetwork.org/files/images/imce/heirri_wp2_d2.2.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Mejlgaard, N., Buljan, I., Saladié, N., Altenhofer, M., Cayetano, M., Gmelch, N., Griessler, E., Gylstroff, S., Lang, A., Marušić, A., Revuelta, G., Strand. R., & Wuketich, M. (2016b). Stock taking/inventorying (WP2): Deliverable 2.3 HEIRRI database. Retrieved from http://www.guninetwork.org/files/images/imce/heirri_wp2_d2.3.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Mejlgaard, N., & Griessler, E. (2016). Monitoring RRI in Europe: Approach and key observations. In R. Lindner, S. Kuhlmann, S. Randles, B. Bedsted, G. Gorgoni, E. Griessler, A. Loconto & N. Mejlgaard (Eds.), Navigating towards shared responsibility in research and innovation: Approach, process and results of the Res-AGorA project (pp. 115–120). Karlsruhe: Fraunhofer ISI.Google Scholar
- Nyre, L., Gynnild, A., & Guribye, F. (2015). Drones in education: Teaching students to make responsible journalism with new technology. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/heirriproject/docs/smart_drones_for_journalism._teachi. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Savery, J. R. (2015). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. In A. Walker, H. Leary, C. E. Hmelo-Silver, & P. E. Ertmers (Eds.), Essential readings in problem-based learning. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.Google Scholar
- Shapin, S., & Schaffer, S. (1985). Leviathan and the air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Shelley-Egan, C., Wright, D., Benčin, R., Riha, J. S., Strle, G., Ovadia, D., Cañedo, A. P., Angeli, C., & Sotiriou, M. (2014). SATORI deliverable D2.1—Report (handbook) of participatory processes. Retrieved from http://satoriproject.eu/media/D2.1_Report-handbook-of-participatory-processes_FINAL1.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- STIPS. (2012a). STIPS: Program for education and research on science and technology in public sphere. Retrieved form http://stips.jp/english/. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- STIPS. (2012b). Science and technology in public sphere. Retrieved from http://www.stips.kyoto-u.ac.jp/stips_e. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Tassone, V. C., O’Mahony, C., McKenna, E., Eppink, H. J., & Wals, A. E. J. (2017). (Re-)designing higher education curricula in times of systemic dysfunction: A Responsible Research and Innovation perspective. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-017-0211-4. (online first).Google Scholar
- University of Monatana. (2003). Online research ethics course. Retrieved from https://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/montana_round1/research_ethics.html#brief. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- van Donzel, M., Dijkstra, G., & Wynstra, F. (2013). Fostering professionalism and integrity in research: Final report of the taskforce scientific integrity. Retrieved from https://www.eur.nl/fileadmin/ASSETS/ieb/integriteit/Taskforce_Scientific_Integrity_EUR.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- von Schomberg, R. (2011). Research and innovation in the information and communication technologies and security technologies fields. In R. von Schomberg (Ed.), A report from the European commission services. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, European Union.Google Scholar
- Winner, L. (1985). Do artifacts have politics? In D. Mackenzie & J. Wajcman (Eds.), The social shaping of technology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar