The Conception of Life in Synthetic Biology
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The phrase ‘synthetic biology’ is used to describe a set of different scientific and technological disciplines, which share the objective to design and produce new life forms. This essay addresses the following questions: What conception of life stands behind this ambitious objective? In what relation does this conception of life stand to that of traditional biology and biotechnology? And, could such a conception of life raise ethical concerns? Three different observations that provide useful indications for the conception of life in synthetic biology will be discussed in detail: 1. Synthetic biologists focus on different features of living organisms in order to design new life forms, 2. Synthetic biologists want to contribute to the understanding of life, and 3. Synthetic biologists want to modify life through a rational design, which implies the notions of utilising, minimising/optimising, varying and overcoming life. These observations indicate a tight connection between science and technology, a focus on selected aspects of life, a production-oriented approach to life, and a design-oriented understanding of life. It will be argued that through this conception of life synthetic biologists present life in a different light. This conception of life will be illustrated by the metaphor of a toolbox. According to the notion of life as a toolbox, the different features of living organisms are perceived as various rationally designed instruments that can be used for the production of the living organism itself or secondary products made by the organism. According to certain ethical positions this conception of life might raise ethical concerns related to the status of the organism, the motives of the scientists and the role of technology in our society.
KeywordsBiotechnology Conception of life Designing life Living machine Synthetic biology
I would like to thank Christoph Rehmann-Sutter, Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra and Lothar Deplazes for helpful comments on this article. Moreover, I thank the members of the workshop “The Definition of Life in Times of its Technical Producibility: Ethical, Legal and Social Challenges of Synthetic Biology” that has been organised by Peter Dabrock and collaborators, for their suggestions, and three anonymous reviewers for their comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This work was supported by the URPP (University Research Priority Programme) Ethics of the University of Zurich and by a grant from the European Commission’s 7th framework programme in the category “Science in Society” for the project “SYBHEL: Synthetic Biology for Human Health: Ethical and Legal Issues”.
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