Science and Engineering Ethics

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 387–394 | Cite as

Collective Openness and Other Recommendations for the Promotion of Research Integrity

  • Melissa S. AndersonEmail author

Research integrity is essentially a matter of behavior. It is embodied in the actions and decisions of scientists, rather than in the standards, codes, regulations and norms that aim to shape that behavior. Misconduct and other questionable research behaviors stand in sharp contrast to research integrity. Measures intended to promote research integrity should therefore be held to a behavioral standard. If they promote right behavior, they can be judged successful; if they show no association with proper or improper conduct, or if, paradoxically, they show evidence of increasing the likelihood of misconduct by scientists, then they are not successful.

This behavioral criterion is both simpler and tougher than more common evaluative criteria. Instruction in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) often relies on assessments of students’ reactions to hypothetical situations, or their understanding of ethical principles, or their knowledge of policies and rules. It is not often judged in...


Responsible Conduct Group Mentor Research Integrity Senior Scientist Collective Openness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author gratefully acknowledges helpful comments from Nicholas H. Steneck, Brian C. Martinson and Raymond De Vries on some of the ideas in this article, but accepts sole responsibility for the content and recommendations.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Policy and AdministrationUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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