Advertisement

Egg White Protein Film Production Through Extrusion and Calendering Processes and its Suitability for Food Packaging Applications

  • Maruscha Pfeiffer Pranata
  • Jaime González-Buesa
  • Sangeeta Chopra
  • Kikyung Kim
  • Yamil Pietri
  • Perry K. W. Ng
  • Laurent M. Matuana
  • Eva AlmenarEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The goal of this study was to produce a film made of egg white protein (EWP) through extrusion and calendering processes, the most common filmmaking processing technology, and to determine its potential for food packaging applications. The latter was assessed by measuring the mechanical, barrier, thermal, and optical properties; plasticizer leakage; and microbial resistance of the EWP film when exposed to specific combinations of relative humidity (RH) and temperature, and by comparing some of the results to those of commercial polylactic acid (PLA) film, the most commonly used bioplastic for food packaging applications. A transparent, continuous, thin, and uniform EWP film was produced with extruder-zone temperatures of 40 °C–50 °C–60 °C–70 °C–75 °C from feeder to die and with roller temperatures and speed set to 115–120 °C and 0.111 rpm. The permeability, lightness, and transmittance of the resulting film were affected by temperature while the RH affected its thickness, tensile properties, permeability, color, transmittance, and glycerol loss. Compared to the PLA film, the EWP film was less breakable and flexible, and had a lower barrier to water and higher rigidity, thermal resistance, and barrier to oxygen. The two materials present similar transparency, lightness, color, barrier to ethanol, and sensitivity to RH. This study proves that EWP film can be produced through extrusion and calendaring processes and can be used as an alternative to other materials for food packaging applications where thermal resistance, rigidity, strength, barrier to oxygen, and avoidance of condensation are desired.

Keywords

Egg white protein Film development Extrusion Calendering Temperature and relative humidity Food packaging applications 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Hatch project 1007253 from the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA). The authors also thank Abdhi Sarkar with the Michigan State University Center for Statistical Training and Consulting for her advice on the statistical analyses performed in this study. Dr. González-Buesa thanks the National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA) for a DOC-INIA research contract, and the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), REA grant agreement no. 332201.

References

  1. Almenar, E., & Auras, R. (2010). Permeation, sorption, and diffusion in poly(lactic acid). In R. Auras, L.-T. Lim, S. E. M. Selke, & H. Tsuji (Eds.), Poly(lactic acid): synthesis, structure, properties and applications (pp. 155–179). New York: Wiley and Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almenar, E., Auras, R., Wharton, P., Rubino, M., & Harte, B. (2007). Release of acetaldehyde from β-cyclodextrins inhibits postharvest decay fungi in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(17), 7205–7212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM. (2005). Standard test method for oxygen gas transmission rate through plastic film and sheeting using a coulometric sensor. Method D3985-05. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing Materials.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM. (2012a). Standard test method for transition temperatures and enthalpies of fusion and crystallization of polymers by differential scanning calorimetry, Method D3418-12. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing Materials.Google Scholar
  5. ASTM. (2012b). Standard test methods for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting, Method D882-12. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing Materials.Google Scholar
  6. ASTM. (2013a). Standard test method for water vapor transmission rate through plastic film and sheeting using a modulated infrared sensor. Method F1249-13. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing Materials.Google Scholar
  7. ASTM. (2013b). Standard practice for determining resistance of synthetic polymeric materials to fungi. Method G21-13. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing Materials.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, L. N., & Labuza, T. P. (2000). Moisture sorption: practical aspects of isotherm measurement and use (2nd ed.). Minnesota: AACC Press.Google Scholar
  9. Chang, Y. P., Cheah, P. B., & Seow, C. C. (2000). Plasticizing-antiplasticizing effects of water on physical properties of tapioca starch films in the glassy state. Journal of Food Science, 65(3), 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coltelli, M. B., Wild, F., Bugnicourt, E., Cinelli, M. L., Linder, M., Schmid, M., et al. (2016). State of the art in the development and properties of protein-based films and coatings and their applicability to cellulose based products: an extensive review. Coatings, 6(1), 1–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corradini, C., Alfieri, I., Cavazza, A., Lantano, C., Lorenzi, A., Zucchetto, N., & Montenero, A. (2013). Antimicrobial films containing lysozyme for active packaging obtained by sol-gel technique. Journal of Food Engineering, 119(3), 580–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cunningham, P., Ogale, A. A., Dawson, P. L., & Acton, J. C. (2000). Tensile properties of soy protein isolate films produced by a thermal compaction technique. Journal of Food Science, 65(4), 668–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fabra, M. J., López-Rubio, A., & Lagaron, J. M. (2015). Three-layer films based on wheat gluten and electrospun PHA. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8(11), 2330–2340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Félix, M., Martín-Alfonso, J. E., Romero, A., & Guerrero, A. (2014). Development of albumen/soy biobased plastic materials processed by injection molding. Journal of Food Engineering, 125, 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fernández-Espada, L., Bengoechea, C., Cordobés, F., & Guerrero, A. (2013). Linear viscoelasticity characterization of egg albumen/glycerol blends with applications in material molding processes. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 91(4), 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gennadios, A., Ghorpade, V. M., Weller, C. L., & Hanna, M. A. (1996). Heat curing of soy protein films. Transactions of the ASAE, 39(2), 575–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Glycerine Producers’ Association. (1963). Physical properties of glycerine and its solutions. New York: Glycerine Producers’ Association.Google Scholar
  18. Gontard, N., Thibault, R., Cuq, B., & Guilbert, S. (1996). Influence of relative humidity and film composition on oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities of edible films. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(4), 1064–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. González-Buesa, J., Page, N., Kaminski, C., Ryser, E., Beaudry, R., & Almenar, E. (2014). Effect of non-conventional atmospheres and bio-based packaging on the quality and safety of Listeria monocytogenes-inoculated fresh-cut celery (Apium graveolens L.) during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 93, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. González-Gutiérrez, J., Partal, P., García-Morales, M., & Gallegos, C. (2010). Development of highly-transparent protein/starch-based bioplastics. Bioresource Technology, 101(6), 2007–2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. González-Gutiérrez, J., Partal, P., García-Morales, M., & Gallegos, C. (2011). Effect of processing on the viscoelastic, tensile and optical properties of albumen/starch-based bioplastics. Carbohydrate Polymers, 84(1), 308–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hernandez-Izquierdo, V. M., & Krochta, J. M. (2008). Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation-a review. Journal of Food Science, 73(2), R30–R39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ho, K. L. G., Pometto, A. L., & Hinz, P. N. (1999). Effects of temperature and relative humidity on polylactic acid plastic degradation. Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation, 7(2), 83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holm, V. K., Ndoni, S., & Risbo, J. (2006). The stability of poly (lactic acid) packaging films as influenced by humidity and temperature. Journal of Food Science, 71(2), E40–E44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jerez, A., Partal, P., Martinez, I., Gallegos, C., & Guerrero, A. (2007). Egg white-based bioplastics developed by thermomechanical processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 82(4), 608–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jones, A., Zeller, M. A., & Sharma, S. (2013). Thermal, mechanical, and moisture absorption properties of egg white protein bioplastics with natural rubber and glycerol. Progress in Biomaterials, 2(1), 12–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Joo, M., Auras, R., & Almenar, E. (2011). Preparation and characterization of blends made of poly(lactic acid) and β-cyclodextrin: preparation of the blend properties by using a masterbatch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86(2), 1022–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kessler, H. G. (2006). Lebensmittel- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Molkereitechnologie. München: Verlag A. Kessler.Google Scholar
  29. Kovacs-Nolan, J., Phillips, M., & Mine, Y. (2005). Advances in the value of eggs and egg components for human health. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(22), 8421–8431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Le Bayon, I., Draghi, M., Gabille, M., Prégnac, M., Lamoulie, J., Jequel, J., et al. (2015). Development of a laboratory test method to assess the resistance of bio-based insulation materials against moulds. In: First International Conference on Bio-based Building materials, Clermont-Ferrand, France. pp. 605–612.Google Scholar
  31. Lee, R., Pranata, M., Ustunol, Z., & Almenar, E. (2013). Influence of glycerol and water activity on the properties of compressed egg white-based bioplastics. Journal of Food Engineering, 118(1), 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li, M., & Ye, R. (2017). Edible active packaging for food application: materials and technology. In M. A. Masuelli (Ed.), Biopackaging (pp. 1–19). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Google Scholar
  33. Li, M., Zhang, F., Liu, Z., Guo, X., Wu, Q., & Qiao, L. (2018). Controlled release system by active gelatin film incorporated with β-cyclodextrin-thymol inclusion complexes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 11(9), 1695–1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. López-Castejón, M. L., Bengoechea, C., García-Morales, M., & Martínez, I. (2015). Effect of plasticizer and storage conditions on the thermomechanical properties of albumen/tragacanth based bioplastics. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 95, 264–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. López-Castejón, M. L., Bengoechea, C., García-Morales, M., & Martínez, I. (2016). Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 152, 62–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. López-Mata, M. A., García-González, G., Valbuena-Gregorio, E., Ruiz-Cruz, S., Zamudio-Flores, P. B., Burruel-Ibarra, S. E., et al. (2016). Development and characteristics of biodegradable aloe-gel/egg white films. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 133(44067), 1–9.Google Scholar
  37. Martínez, I., Partal, P., García-Morales, M., Guerrero, A., & Gallegos, C. (2013). Development of protein-based bioplastics with antimicrobial activity by thermo-mechanical processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 117(2), 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller, K. S., & Krochta, J. M. (1997). Oxygen and aroma barrier properties of edible films: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 8(7), 228–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miller, K. S., Upadhyaya, S. K., & Krochta, J. M. (1998). Permeability of d-limonene in whey protein films. Journal of Food Science, 63, 244–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moro, T. M. A., Ascheri, J. L. R., Ortiz, J. A. R., Carvalho, C. W. P., & Meléndez-Arévalo, A. (2017). Bioplastics of native starches reinforced with passion fruit peel. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10(10), 1798–1808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orliac, O., Rouilly, A., Silvestre, F., & Rigal, L. (2003). Effects of various plasticizers on the mechanical properties, water resistance and aging of thermo-moulded films made from sunflower proteins. Industrial Crops and Products, 18(2), 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Palumbo, M., Lacasta, A. M., Navarro, A., Giraldo, P., & Lesar, B. (2017). Improvement of fire reaction and mould growth resistance of a new bio-based thermal insulation material. Construction and Building Materials, 139, 531–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peng, N., Gu, L., Li, J., Chang, C., Li, X., Su, Y., & Yang, Y. (2017). Films based on egg white protein and succinylated casein cross-linked with transglutaminase. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10(8), 1422–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Robertson, G. L. (2013). Food packaging: principles and practice (3rd ed.). Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  45. Selke, S. E. M., & Culter, J. D. (2016). Plastics packaging: properties, processing, applications, and regulations (3rd ed.). Cincinnati: Hanser Publishers.Google Scholar
  46. Toro-Márquez, L. A., Merino, D., & Gutiérrez, T. J. (2018). Bionanocomposite films prepared from corn starch with and without nanopackaged Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) flower extract. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 11(11), 1955–1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Valencia-Sullca, C., Atarés, L., Vargas, M., & Chiralt, A. (2018). Physical and antimicrobial properties of compression-molded cassava starch-chitosan films for meat preservation. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 11(7), 1339–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vieira, M. G. A., da Silva, M. A., dos Santos, L. O., & Beppu, M. M. (2011). Natural-based plasticizers and biopolymer films: a review. European Polymer Journal, 47(3), 254–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wakai, M., & Almenar, E. (2015). Effect of the presence of montmorillonite on the solubility of whey protein isolate films in food model systems with different compositions and pH. Food Hydrocolloids, 43, 612–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weiss, R. F. (1970). The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Research, 17, 721–735.Google Scholar
  51. Zink, J., Wyrobnik, T., Prinz, T., & Schmid, M. (2016). Physical, chemical and biochemical modifications of protein-based films and coatings: an extensive review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(9), 1376.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maruscha Pfeiffer Pranata
    • 1
  • Jaime González-Buesa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sangeeta Chopra
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kikyung Kim
    • 1
  • Yamil Pietri
    • 1
  • Perry K. W. Ng
    • 4
  • Laurent M. Matuana
    • 1
  • Eva Almenar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of PackagingMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Unidad de Hortofruticultura, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de AragónInstituto Agroalimentario de Aragón - IA2 (CITA-Universidad de Zaragoza)ZaragozaSpain
  3. 3.Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and Human NutritionMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations