Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields on Vacuum Drying and Quality Characteristics of Dried Carrot

  • Caiyun LiuEmail author
  • Annachiara Pirozzi
  • Giovanna Ferrari
  • Eugene Vorobiev
  • Nabil GrimiEmail author


This study investigates the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the kinetics of vacuum drying (VD) of carrot and on the preservation of the quality of dried carrot tissue. The impacts of PEF-treatment and VD on β-carotene content and color of carrot samples were studied. PEF treatment was applied with intensity E = 0.6 kV/cm and total treatment time tPEF = 0.1 s to reach a high level of carrot tissue electroporation. The VD was applied at the pressure p = 0.3 bar for different temperatures, Td = 25, 50, 75, and 90 °C. The spectrophotometric method was used to determine the β-carotene content. The color was measured using the CIE L* a* b* method. Obtained results indicated that PEF treatment let to a noticeable decrease of drying time (by 33–55% at Td = 25–90 °C). The activation energy was found to be 18.25 kJ/mol and 13.4 kJ/mol for untreated and PEF-pretreated samples, respectively. The reduction of drying time by PEF pretreatment was beneficial for the retention of β-carotene in dried samples. The application of PEF treatment resulted in smaller changes in color ∆E as compared with untreated samples; this tendency was observed for all studied temperatures.


Pulsed electric fields Carrot β-Carotene Vacuum drying Color 



Color coordinate redness or greenness at time t


Color coordinate redness or greenness of fresh carrot


Drying coefficients




Color coordinate yellowness or blueness at time t


Color coordinate yellowness or blueness of fresh carrot


Dilution factor


Initial wet basis water content, g/g


Electric field strength, kV/cm


Total color difference


Activation energy of the moisture diffusion, kJ/mol

\( {E}_{1 cm}^{1\%} \)

Molar extinction coefficient, L/mol


Drying rate constant, s-1


Arrhenius factor, s-1;


Color coordinate whiteness or brightness at time t


Color coordinate whiteness or brightness of fresh carrot


Mass of the sample, g


Initial mass of the sample, g


Mass of dry matter, g


Molecular weight of β-carotene, g/mol


Number of pulses


Number of trains


Pressure, bar


Universal gas constant, kJ∙mol-1∙K-1


Drying time, s


Drying time for untreated sample


Drying time for PEF treated sample


Extraction time, s


Pulse duration, μs


Total time of PEF treatment, s


Absolute drying air temperature, K


Drying temperature, °C


Interval between pulses, ms


Total extract volume, L


Moisture ratio


Final moisture ratio for untreated sample


Final moisture ratio for PEF treated sample


Moisture content gH2O/g DM


Initial moisture content, gH2O/g DM


Wavelength, nm



Dry matter


Pulsed electric fields


Untreated samples


Vacuum drying


Wet basis


Funding Information

This work was supported by the China Scholarship Council and by the Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis (17th ed.). Gaithersburg, MD, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
  2. Ade-Omowaye, B. I. O., Rastogi, N. K., Angersbach, A., & Knorr, D. (2002). Osmotic dehydration of bell peppers: influence of high intensity electric field pulses and elevated temperature treatment. Journal of Food Engineering, 54(1), 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arikan, M. F., Ayhan, Z., Soysal, Y., & Esturk, O. (2012). Drying characteristics and quality parameters of microwave-dried grated carrots. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(8), 3217–3229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babalis, S. J., & Belessiotis, V. G. (2004). Influence of the drying conditions on the drying constants and moisture diffusivity during the thin-layer drying of figs. Journal of Food Engineering, 65(3), 449–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben Ammar, J., Lanoisellé, J.-L., Lebovka, N. I., Van Hecke, E., & Vorobiev, E. (2011). Impact of a pulsed electric field on damage of plant tissues: effects of cell size and tissue electrical conductivity. Journal of Food Science, 76(1), E90–E97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Breithaupt, D. E., & Bamedi, A. (2001). Carotenoid esters in vegetables and fruits: a screening with emphasis on β-cryptoxanthin esters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(4), 2064–2070.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi, M. H., Kim, G. H., & Lee, H. S. (2002). Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange (Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage. Food Research International, 35(8), 753–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christensen, L. P., & Brandt, K. (2006). Bioactive polyacetylenes in food plants of the Apiaceae family: occurrence, bioactivity and analysis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 41(3), 683–693.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Chua, K. J., Mujumdar, A. S., Hawlader, M. N. A., Chou, S. K., & Ho, J. C. (2001). Batch drying of banana pieces-effect of stepwise change in drying air temperature on drying kinetics and product colour. Food Research International, 34(8), 721–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cui, Z.-W., Xu, S.-Y., & Sun, D.-W. (2004). Effect of microwave-vacuum drying on the carotenoids retention of carrot slices and chlorophyll retention of Chinese chive leaves. Drying Technology, 22(3), 563–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El Darra, N., Grimi, N., Maroun, R. G., Louka, N., & Vorobiev, E. (2013). Pulsed electric field, ultrasound, and thermal pretreatments for better phenolic extraction during red fermentation. European Food Research and Technology, 236(1), 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El Kantar, S., Boussetta, N., Lebovka, N., Foucart, F., Rajha, H. N., Maroun, R. G., et al. (2017). Pulsed electric field treatment of citrus fruits: improvement of juice and polyphenols extraction. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 46, 153–161.Google Scholar
  13. Fernandes, F. A. N., & Rodrigues, S. (2007). Ultrasound as pre-treatment for drying of fruits: dehydration of banana. Journal of Food Engineering, 82(2), 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Figiel, A. (2010). Drying kinetics and quality of beetroots dehydrated by combination of convective and vacuum-microwave methods. Journal of Food Engineering, 98(4), 461–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fikselova, M., Silhar, S., Marecek, J., & Francakova, H. (2008). Extraction of carrot (Daucus carota L.) carotenes under different conditions. Czech J. Food Science, 26(4), 268–274.Google Scholar
  16. Gachovska, T., Cassada, D., Subbiah, J., Hanna, M., Thippareddi, H., & Snow, D. (2010). Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing. Journal of Food Science, 75(6), E323–E329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hammami, C., & René, F. (1997). Determination of freeze-drying process variables for strawberries. Journal of Food Engineering, 32(2), 133–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kashaninejad, M., Mortazavi, A., Safekordi, A., & Tabil, L. G. (2007). Thin-layer drying characteristics and modeling of pistachio nuts. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(1), 98–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaya, A., Aydin, O., & Demirtacs, C. (2009). Experimental and theoretical analysis of drying carrots. Desalination, 237(1–3), 285–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khraisheh, M. A. M., Cooper, T. J. R., & Magee, T. R. A. (1997). Shrinkage characteristics of potatos dehydrated under combined microwave and convective air conditions. Drying Technology, 15(3–4), 1003–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kobæk-Larsen, M., Christensen, L. P., Vach, W., Ritskes-Hoitinga, J., & Brandt, K. (2005). Inhibitory effects of feeding with carrots or (-)-falcarinol on development of azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(5), 1823–1827.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Lebovka, N. I., Shynkaryk, M. V., & Vorobiev, E. (2006). Drying of potato tissue pretreated by ohmic heating. Drying Technology, 24(5), 601–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lebovka, N. I., Shynkaryk, M. V., & Vorobiev, E. (2007). Pulsed electric field enhanced drying of potato tissue. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(2), 606–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lin, T. M., Durance, T. D., & Scaman, C. H. (1998). Characterization of vacuum microwave, air and freeze dried carrot slices. Food Research International, 31(2), 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Litvin, S., Mannheim, C. H., & Miltz, J. (1998). Dehydration of carrots by a combination of freeze drying, microwave heating and air or vacuum drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 36(1), 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu, C., Grimi, N., Lebovka, N., & Vorobiev, E. (2018a). Convective air, microwave, and combined drying of potato pre-treated by pulsed electric fields. Drying Technology, 37(13), 1–10.Google Scholar
  27. Liu, C., Grimi, N., Lebovka, N., & Vorobiev, E. (2018b). Effects of pulsed electric fields treatment on vacuum drying of potato tissue. LWT, 95, 289294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marfil, P. H. M., Santos, E. M., & Telis, V. R. N. (2008). Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics in tomatoes at different drying conditions. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 41(9), 1642–1647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mishra, P., Singh, N. K., et al. (2010). Spectrophotometric and tlc based characterization of kernel carotenoids in short duration maize. Maydica, 55(2), 95.Google Scholar
  30. Mudahar, G. S., Toledo, R. T., Floros, J. D., & Jen, J. J. (1989). Optimization of carrot dehydration process using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science, 54(3), 714–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Park, Y. W. (1987). Effect of freezing, thawing, drying, and cooking on carotene retention in carrots, broccoli and spinach. Journal of Food Science, 52(4), 1022–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Parniakov, O., Bals, O., Lebovka, N., & Vorobiev, E. (2016). Pulsed electric field assisted vacuum freeze-drying of apple tissue. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 35, 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Prakash, S., Jha, S. K., & Datta, N. (2004). Performance evaluation of blanched carrots dried by three different driers. Journal of Food Engineering, 62(3), 305–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rapusas, R. S., & Driscoll, R. H. (1995). The thin-layer drying characterstics of white onion slices. Drying Technology, 13(8–9), 1905–1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rawson, A., Tiwari, B. K., Tuohy, M. G., O’Donnell, C. P., & Brunton, N. (2011). Effect of ultrasound and blanching pretreatments on polyacetylene and carotenoid content of hot air and freeze dried carrot discs. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 18(5), 1172–1179.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Regier, M., Mayer-Miebach, E., Behsnilian, D., Neff, E., & Schuchmann, H. P. (2005). Influences of drying and storage of lycopene-rich carrots on the carotenoid content. Drying Technology, 23(4), 989–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rodrigo, D., Van Loey, A., & Hendrickx, M. (2007). Combined thermal and high pressure colour degradation of tomato puree and strawberry juice. Journal of Food Engineering, 79(2), 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rzkaca, M., & Witrowa-Rajchert, D. (2007). Influence of drying technique on optical properties of dried apple slices. Acta Agrophysica, 10, 445–454.Google Scholar
  39. Sabarez, H. T., & Price, W. E. (1999). A diffusion model for prune dehydration. Journal of Food Engineering, 42(3), 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sacilik, K., & Unal, G. (2005). Influence of the drying conditions on the drying constants and moisture diffusivity during the thin-layer drying of figs. Journal of Food Engineering, 92(2), 207–215.Google Scholar
  41. Salazar, N. A., Alvarez, C., & Orrego, C. E. (2018). Optimization of freezing parameters for freeze-drying mango (Mangifera indica L.) slices. Drying Technology, 36(2), 192–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saxena, A., Maity, T., Raju, P. S., & Bawa, A. S. (2012). Degradation kinetics of colour and total carotenoids in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) bulb slices during hot air drying. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(2), 672–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Song, J., Wang, X., Li, D., Meng, L., & Liu, C. (2017). Degradation of carotenoids in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) slices as influenced by microwave vacuum drying. International Journal of Food Properties, 20(7), 1479–1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Suvarnakuta, P., Devahastin, S., & Mujumdar, A. S. (2005). Drying kinetics and $β$-carotene degradation in carrot undergoing different drying processes. Journal of Food Science, 70(8), s520–s526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vadivambal, R., & Jayas, D. S. (2007). Changes in quality of microwave-treated agricultural products—a review. Biosystems Engineering, 98(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Verma, L. R., Bucklin, R. A., Endan, J. B., & Wratten, F. T. (1985). Effects of drying air parameters on rice drying models. Transactions of ASAE, 28(1), 296–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Voda, A., Homan, N., Witek, M., Duijster, A., van Dalen, G., van der Sman, R., et al. (2012). The impact of freeze-drying on microstructure and rehydration properties of carrot. Food Research International, 49(2), 687–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wiktor, A., Nowacka, M., Dadan, M., Rybak, K., Lojkowski, W., Chudoba, T., & Witrowa-Rajchert, D. (2016). The effect of pulsed electric field on drying kinetics, color, and microstructure of carrot. Drying Technology, 34(11), 1286–1296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Xu, W., Zhu, G., Song, C., Hu, S., & Li, Z. (2018). Optimization of microwave vacuum drying and pretreatment methods for Polygonum cuspidatum. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2018. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Medical Instrument and Food EngineeringUniversity of Shanghai for Science and TechnologyYangpu DistrictPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Laboratoire de Transformations Intégrées de la Matière Renouvelable, Sorbonne UniversitésCompiègne CedexFrance
  3. 3.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly
  4. 4.Prodal scarlFiscianoItaly

Personalised recommendations