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Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields on Vacuum Drying and Quality Characteristics of Dried Carrot

  • Caiyun LiuEmail author
  • Annachiara Pirozzi
  • Giovanna Ferrari
  • Eugene Vorobiev
  • Nabil GrimiEmail author
Review
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

This study investigates the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the kinetics of vacuum drying (VD) of carrot and on the preservation of the quality of dried carrot tissue. The impacts of PEF-treatment and VD on β-carotene content and color of carrot samples were studied. PEF treatment was applied with intensity E = 0.6 kV/cm and total treatment time tPEF = 0.1 s to reach a high level of carrot tissue electroporation. The VD was applied at the pressure p = 0.3 bar for different temperatures, Td = 25, 50, 75, and 90 °C. The spectrophotometric method was used to determine the β-carotene content. The color was measured using the CIE L* a* b* method. Obtained results indicated that PEF treatment let to a noticeable decrease of drying time (by 33–55% at Td = 25–90 °C). The activation energy was found to be 18.25 kJ/mol and 13.4 kJ/mol for untreated and PEF-pretreated samples, respectively. The reduction of drying time by PEF pretreatment was beneficial for the retention of β-carotene in dried samples. The application of PEF treatment resulted in smaller changes in color ∆E as compared with untreated samples; this tendency was observed for all studied temperatures.

Keywords

Pulsed electric fields Carrot β-Carotene Vacuum drying Color 

Nomenclature

a*

Color coordinate redness or greenness at time t

a*0

Color coordinate redness or greenness of fresh carrot

A

Drying coefficients

Abs

Absorbance

b*

Color coordinate yellowness or blueness at time t

b*0

Color coordinate yellowness or blueness of fresh carrot

d

Dilution factor

Ci

Initial wet basis water content, g/g

E

Electric field strength, kV/cm

△E

Total color difference

Ea

Activation energy of the moisture diffusion, kJ/mol

\( {E}_{1 cm}^{1\%} \)

Molar extinction coefficient, L/mol

k

Drying rate constant, s-1

k0

Arrhenius factor, s-1;

L*

Color coordinate whiteness or brightness at time t

L*0

Color coordinate whiteness or brightness of fresh carrot

m

Mass of the sample, g

mi

Initial mass of the sample, g

md

Mass of dry matter, g

MW

Molecular weight of β-carotene, g/mol

n

Number of pulses

N

Number of trains

p

Pressure, bar

R

Universal gas constant, kJ∙mol-1∙K-1

td

Drying time, s

td(U)

Drying time for untreated sample

td(PEF)

Drying time for PEF treated sample

te

Extraction time, s

ti

Pulse duration, μs

tPEF

Total time of PEF treatment, s

Ta

Absolute drying air temperature, K

Td

Drying temperature, °C

Δt

Interval between pulses, ms

V

Total extract volume, L

w

Moisture ratio

wU

Final moisture ratio for untreated sample

wPEF

Final moisture ratio for PEF treated sample

X

Moisture content gH2O/g DM

Xi

Initial moisture content, gH2O/g DM

λ

Wavelength, nm

Abbreviations

DM

Dry matter

PEF

Pulsed electric fields

U

Untreated samples

VD

Vacuum drying

WB

Wet basis

Notes

Funding Information

This work was supported by the China Scholarship Council and by the Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Medical Instrument and Food EngineeringUniversity of Shanghai for Science and TechnologyYangpu DistrictPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Laboratoire de Transformations Intégrées de la Matière Renouvelable, Sorbonne UniversitésCompiègne CedexFrance
  3. 3.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly
  4. 4.Prodal scarlFiscianoItaly

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