Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 1917–1927 | Cite as

Assessing the Vacuum Spray Drying Effects on the Properties of Orange Essential Oil Microparticles

  • Fernanda de Melo RamosEmail author
  • Vivaldo Silveira Júnior
  • Ana Silvia Prata
Original Paper


The effect of using reduced pressure and absence of oxygen during the spray drying process for processing sensitive compound was investigated. Orange essential oil emulsion was atomized in the same equipment (nozzle and drying chamber) and dried under two different conditions: (a) conventional spray drying settings (airflow at ambient pressure with inlet/outlet temperatures of 190 °C/90 °C); (b) reduced-pressure conditions (10–15 kPa) for allowing water evaporation at 25–30 °C. Emulsion phase was preliminarily characterized regarding droplet size distribution, kinetic stability, microstructure, and rheological behavior in order to ensure that the formulation is able to stabilize the oil droplets. The particles recovered in both process conditions were characterized with respect to the moisture content, water activity, particle size distribution, powder morphology, encapsulation efficiency, wettability, and solubility. The particles produced by vacuum spray drying presented lower mean diameter (14.38 μm) and wettability (94 s) besides higher encapsulation efficiency (99.89%) and moisture content (6.27%) than particles resulting from the conventional process. The vacuum process employed did not affect the solubility of the samples. For both processes, most of the particles presented no apparent fissures or cracks in the structure, but some morphological changes were caused by the vacuum. The process seems to be a promising technique to produce thermo-sensitive powder and can improve technological properties.


Microencapsulation Thermo-sensitive compounds Orange essential oil Vacuum spray drying 


Funding Information

The authors thank CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brazil) for financial support.


  1. Aghbashlo, M., Mobli, H., Madadlou, A., & Rafiee, S. (2013). Influence of wall material and inlet drying air temperature on the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray drying. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(6), 1561–1569. Scholar
  2. Anandaraman, S., & Reineccius, G. A. (1986). Stability of encapsulated orange peel oil. Food Technology, 40(11), 88–93.Google Scholar
  3. Anker, M., & Reineccius, G. A. (1988). Influence of spray dryer air temperature of the retention and shelf life of encapsulated orange oil. In S. J. Risch & G. A. Reineccius (Eds.), Flavor Encapsulation (pp. 78–86). Washington DC.Google Scholar
  4. AOCS. (2009). Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (6th ed.). Champaign: AOCS Press.Google Scholar
  5. Aoyama, R., Kitamura, Y., & Yamazaki, K. (2009). Experimental analysis of spraying and drying characteristics in vacuum spray dryer. Japan Journal of Food Engineering, 10(2), 127–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bae, E. K., & Lee, S. J. (2008). Microencapsulation of avocado oil by spray drying using whey protein and maltodextrin. Journal of Microencapsulation, 25(8), 549–560. Scholar
  7. Bernard, C., Regnault, S., Gendreau, S., Charbonneau, S., & Relkin, P. (2011). Enhancement of emulsifying properties of whey proteins by controlling spray-drying parameters. Food Hydrocolloids, 25(4), 758–763. Scholar
  8. Birchal, V. S., & Passos, M. L. (2005). Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 22(2), 293–302. Scholar
  9. Bringas-Lantigua, M., Valdés, D., & Pino, J. A. (2012). Influence of spray-dryer air temperatures on encapsulated lime essential oil. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47(7), 1511–1517. Scholar
  10. Buffo, R. A., Probst, K., Zehentbauer, G., Luo, Z., & Reineccius, G. A. (2002). Effects of agglomeration on the properties of spray-dried encapsulated flavours. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17(4), 292–299. Scholar
  11. Buma, T. J., & Henstra, S. (1971). Particle structure of spray-dried milk products as observed by a scanning electron microscope. Netherlands Milk & Dairy Journal, 25(1), 75–80.Google Scholar
  12. Cano-Chauca, M., Stringheta, P. C., Ramos, A. M., & Cal-Vidal, J. (2005). Effect of the carriers on the microstructure of mango powder obtained by spray drying and its functional characterization. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 6(4), 420–428. Scholar
  13. Carneiro, H. C. F., Tonon, R. V., Grosso, C. R. F., & Hubinger, M. D. (2013). Encapsulation efficiency and oxidative stability of flaxseed oil microencapsulated by spray drying using different combinations of wall materials. Journal of Food Engineering, 115(4), 443–451. Scholar
  14. Carvalho, A. G. S., Silva, V. M., & Hubinger, M. D. (2014). Microencapsulation by spray drying of emulsified green coffee oil with two-layered membranes. Food Research International, 61, 236–245. Scholar
  15. Carvalho, A. G. S., Machado, M. T. C., Silva, V. M., Sartoratto, A., Rodrigues, R. A. F., & Hubinger, M. D. (2016). Physical properties and morphology of spray dried microparticles containing anthocyanins of jussara (Euterpe edulis Martius) extract. Powder Technology, 294, 421–428. Scholar
  16. Charve, J., & Reineccius, G. A. (2009). Encapsulation performance of proteins and traditional materials for spray dried flavors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(6), 2486–2492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chin, S.-T., Nazimah, S. A. H., Quek, S.-Y., Man, Y. B. C., Rahman, R. A., & Hashim, D. M. (2010). Effect of thermal processing and storage condition on the flavour stability of spray-dried durian powder. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 43(6), 856–861. Scholar
  18. Dubey, R. R., & Parikh, R. H. (2004). Studies of PLGA microspheres. Pharmaceutical Technology Europe, 16(5), 23–34.Google Scholar
  19. Fernandes, R. V. d. B., Borges, S. V., Botrel, D. A., & Oliveira, C. R. d. (2014). Physical and chemical properties of encapsulated rosemary essential oil by spray drying using whey protein-inulin blends as carriers. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(6), 1522–1529. Scholar
  20. Fernandes, R. V. d. B., Botrel, D. A., Silva, E. K., Borges, S. V., Oliveira, C. R. d., Yoshida, M. I., et al. (2016). Cashew gum and inulin: new alternative for ginger essential oil microencapsulation. Carbohydrate Polymers, 153, 133–142. Scholar
  21. Fuchs, M., Turchiuli, C., Bohin, M., Cuvelier, M. E., Ordonnaud, C., Peyrat-Maillard, M. N., & Dumoulin, E. (2006). Encapsulation of oil in powder using spray drying and fluidised bed agglomeration. Journal of Food Engineering, 75(1), 27–35. Scholar
  22. Gottlieb, N., & Schwartzbach, C. (2004). Development of an internal mixing two-fluid nozzle by systematic variation of internal parts. In Proceedings of the Americas. Nottingham: Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems Conference.Google Scholar
  23. Goula, A. M., & Adamopoulos, K. G. (2010). A new technique for spray drying orange juice concentrate. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 11(2), 342–351. Scholar
  24. Islam, M. Z., Kitamura, Y., Yamano, Y., & Kitamura, M. (2016). Effect of vacuum spray drying on the physicochemical properties, water sorption and glass transition phenomenon of orange juice powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 169, 131–140. Scholar
  25. Islam, M. Z., Kitamura, Y., Kokawa, M., Monalisa, K., Tsai, F. H., & Miyamura, S. (2017). Effects of micro wet milling and vacuum spray drying on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of orange (Citrus unshiu) juice with pulp powder. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 101, 132–144. Scholar
  26. Jafari, S. M., He, Y., & Bhandari, B. (2007a). Encapsulation of nanoparticles of d-limonene by spray drying: role of emulsifiers and emulsifying techniques. Drying Technology, 25(6), 1069–1079. Scholar
  27. Jafari, S. M., He, Y., & Bhandari, B. (2007b). Production of sub-micron emulsions by ultrasound and microfluidization techniques. Journal of Food Engineering, 82(4), 478–488. Scholar
  28. Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E., Bhandari, B., & He, Y. (2008a). Nano-particle encapsulation of fish oil by spray drying. Food Research International, 41(2), 172–183. Scholar
  29. Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E., He, Y., & Bhandari, B. (2008b). Encapsulation efficiency of food flavours and oils during spray drying. Drying Technology, 26(7), 816–835. Scholar
  30. Kilburn, D., Claude, J., Schweizer, T., Alam, A., & Ubbink, J. (2005). Carbohydrate polymers in amorphous states: an integrated thermodynamic and nanostructural investigation. Biomacromolecules, 6, 864–879. Scholar
  31. Kitamura, Y., Itoh, H., Echizen, H., & Satake, T. (2009). Experimental vacuum spray drying of probiotic foods included with lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 33(6), 714–726. Scholar
  32. Koç, M., Güngör, Ö., Zungur, A., Yalçın, B., Selek, İ., Ertekin, F. K., & Ötles, S. (2015). Microencapsulation of extra virgin olive oil by spray drying: effect of wall materials composition, process conditions, and emulsification method. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8(2), 301–318. Scholar
  33. Kooij, S., Sijs, R., Denn, M. M., Villermaux, E., & Bonn, D. (2018). What determines the drop size in sprays? Physical Review X, 8(3), 31019. Scholar
  34. Langrish, T. A. G. (2009). Degradation of vitamin C in spray dryers and temperature and moisture content profiles in these dryers. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2(4), 400–408. Scholar
  35. Lesaint, C., Glomm, W. R., Lundgaard, L. E., & Sjöblom, J. (2009). Dehydration efficiency of AC electrical fields on water-in-model-oil emulsions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 352(1–3), 63–69. Scholar
  36. Liu, X. D., Atarashi, T., Furuta, T., Yoshii, H., Aishima, S., Ohkawara, M., & Linko, P. (2001). Microencapsulation of emulsified hydrophobic flavors by spray drying. Drying Technology, 19(7), 1361–1374. Scholar
  37. Luo, K., & Oh, D.-H. (2015). Inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on fresh-cut bell pepper treated with slightly acidic electrolyzed water combined with ultrasound and mild heat. Food Microbiology, 53, 165–171. Scholar
  38. Masters, K. (1991). Spray drying handbook (5th ed.). London: Longman Scientific & Technical.Google Scholar
  39. McClements, D. J. (2015). In C. P. T. & F. Group (Ed.), Food emulsions. Principles, practices, and techniques. New York: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Minemoto, Y., Hakamata, K., Adachi, S., & Matsuno, R. (2002). Oxidation of linoleic acid encapsulated with gum arabic or maltodextrin by spray-drying. Journal of Microencapsulation, 19(2), 181–189. Scholar
  41. Mizuta, S., Parish, M., & Bowen, H. K. (1984). Dispersion of BaTiO3 powders (part II). Ceramics International, 10(3), 83–86. Scholar
  42. Murugesan, R., & Orsat, V. (2012). Spray drying for the production of nutraceutical ingredients-a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(1), 3–14. Scholar
  43. Nijdam, J. J., & Langrish, T. A. G. (2006). The effect of surface composition on the functional properties of milk powders. Journal of Food Engineering, 77(4), 919–925. Scholar
  44. Ramos, F. M., Oliveira, C. C. M., Soares, A. S. P., & Silveira Júnior, V. (2016). Assessment of differences between products obtained in conventional and vacuum spray dryer. Food Science and Technology, 36, 724–729. Scholar
  45. Ramos, F. M., Ubbink, J., Silveira Júnior, V., & Prata, A. S. (2019). Drying of maltodextrin solution in a vacuum spray dryer. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 146, 78–86. Scholar
  46. Reineccius, G. A. (2004). The spray drying of food flavors. Drying Technology, 22(6), 1289–1324. Scholar
  47. Reineccius, G. A., & Yan, C. (2015). Factors controlling the deterioration of spray dried flavourings and unsaturated lipids. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 31(1), 5–21. Scholar
  48. Risch, S. J., & Reineccius, G. A. (1988). Spray-dried orange oil - effect of emulsion size on flavor retention and shelf stability. In ACS Symposium Series (Vol. 370, pp. 67–77).Google Scholar
  49. Rosenberg, M., Kopelman, I. J., & Talmon, Y. (1990). Factors affecting retention in spray-drying microencapsulation of volatile materials. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 38(5), 1288–1294. Scholar
  50. Samborska, K., Jedlińska, A., Wiktor, A., Derewiaka, D., Wołosiak, R., Matwijczuk, A., et al. (2019). The effect of low-temperature spray drying with dehumidified air on phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds of rapeseed honey powders. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 12, 919–932. Scholar
  51. Semyonov, D., Ramon, O., & Shimoni, E. (2011). Using ultrasonic vacuum spray dryer to produce highly viable dry probiotics. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(9), 1844–1852. Scholar
  52. Sheu, T.-Y., & Rosenberg, M. (1995). Microencapsulation by spray drying ethyl caprylate in whey protein and carbohydrate wall systems. Journal of Food Science, 60(1), 98–103. Scholar
  53. Silva, E. K., Azevedo, V. M., Cunha, R. L., Hubinger, M. D., & Meireles, M. A. A. (2016). Ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil: whey protein isolate versus modified starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 56, 71–83. Scholar
  54. Soottitantawat, A., Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Ohkawara, M., & Linko, P. (2003). Microencapsulation by spray drying: influence of emulsion size on the retention of volatile compounds. Journal of Food Science, 68(7), 2256–2262. Scholar
  55. Soottitantawat, A., Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Ohgawara, M., Forssell, P., Partanen, R., et al. (2004). Effect of water activity on the release characteristics and oxidative stability of D-Limonene encapsulated by spray drying. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(5), 1269–1276. Scholar
  56. Soottitantawat, A., Bigeard, F., Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Ohkawara, M., & Linko, P. (2005). Influence of emulsion and powder size on the stability of encapsulated D-limonene by spray drying. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 6(1), 107–114. Scholar
  57. Tonon, R. V., Freitas, S. S., & Hubinger, M. D. (2011a). Spray drying of açai (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) juice: effect of inlet air temperature and type of carrier agent. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 35(5), 691–700. Scholar
  58. Tonon, R. V., Grosso, C. R. F., & Hubinger, M. D. (2011b). Influence of emulsion composition and inlet air temperature on the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil by spray drying. Food Research Internacional, 44(1), 282–289. Scholar
  59. Trujillo-Cayado, L. A., Alfaro, M. C., Muñoz, J., Raymundo, A., & Sousa, I. (2016). Development and rheological properties of ecological emulsions formulated with a biosolvent and two microbial polysaccharides. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 141, 53–58. Scholar
  60. Zhu, G., Xiao, Z., Zhou, R., & Yi, F. (2012). Fragrance and flavor microencapsulation technology. Advanced Materials Research, 535–537, 440–445. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernanda de Melo Ramos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vivaldo Silveira Júnior
    • 1
  • Ana Silvia Prata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, School of Food EngineeringState University of CampinasCampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations