Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 1955–1965 | Cite as

A Fuzzy Mathematical Approach for Selection of Surface Coating and Its Effect on Staling Kinetics in a Formulated Gluten-Free Flatbread

  • Sonal Patil
  • Sachin K. Sonawane
  • Shalini S. AryaEmail author
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of additives premix (guar gum (0.8%), xanthan gum (0.3%), and glycerol mono-stearate (0.9%), surface coating (groundnut oil, ghee, and potassium sorbate solution), and storage temperatures (30 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 2 °C) on the staling kinetics of gluten-free flatbread (GFFB). Fuzzy mathematical approach was employed to select the surface coating for GFFB. Staling kinetic was monitored for control GFFB with/without additives and with/without groundnut oil surface coating at different storage temperatures for 192 h. The staling parameters such as moisture, tear force, water-soluble starch, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were studied. Staling kinetics in GFFB followed first-order kinetics. Staling rate was successfully retarded with the help of additives, oil coating on the surface of the flatbread during storage temperatures. GFFB prepared with additive premix followed by groundnut oil coating has fresh flatbread alike characteristics when stored at 4 ± 2 °C for the period of 192 h.


Gluten free Fuzzy mathematical approach Surface coating Staling Kinetics 



The authors are grateful to UGC (University Grants Commission) UGC/SAP/2012 for providing economical support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Engineering and Technology DepartmentInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Food Science and Technology, School of Biotechnology and BioinformaticsD. Y. Patil UniversityNavi MumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of LorenaUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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