Bionanocomposite Films Prepared from Corn Starch With and Without Nanopackaged Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Flower Extract
Active and pH-sensitive nano-fillers were prepared from natural and modified montmorillonite (Mnt) and nanopackaged with anthocyanins extracted from the Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) flower. These were then used to reinforce corn (Zea mays) starch-based films plasticized with glycerol, and processed by extrusion and thermo-molding. Seven film systems were investigated for their potential as “active and intelligent” (A&I) bionanocomposite films with improved properties. The thermal and mechanical properties of the bionanocomposite films obtained were enhanced largely due to the added modified clay nano-fillers, and the nanopackaging of the anthocyanins between the nano-clay layers. Unfortunately, however, the bionanocomposite films failed as A&I materials, despite the supposed effect of the nano-clays as protective nano-encapsulating materials for the active and pH-sensitive compound (anthocyanins). The results obtained suggest that the exfoliation of the nano-fillers as a consequence of the shear forces inside the extruder led to the exposure of the anthocyanins during extrusion. Because of this, we consider the large-scale development of A&I biodegradable films incorporating natural pigments very unlikely being processed by extrusion/thermo-molding, since there are several significant processes involved in the techniques currently available in the food and polymer industries that leave the active and pH-sensitive compounds unprotected.
KeywordsFood packaging Mechanical properties Nanopackaging Thermoplastic starch
The authors would like to thank the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Postdoctoral fellowship internal PDTS-Resolution 2417), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP) for financial support, and Dr. Mirian Carmona-Rodríguez for their valuable contribution. Many thanks also to Andres Torres Nicolini for all the assistance he provided in this research.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Altan, A., McCarthy, K. L., & Maskan, M. (2009). Effect of extrusion process on antioxidant activity, total phenolics and β-glucan content of extrudates developed from barley-fruit and vegetable by-products. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 44(6), 1263–1271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.01956.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Álvarez, K., Famá, L., & Gutiérrez, T. J. (2017). Physicochemical, antimicrobial and mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials based on biopolymers with application in the food industry. In M. Masuelli & D. Renard (Eds.), Advances in Physicochemical Properties of Biopolymers: Part 1 (pp. 358–400). Bentham Science Publishers. https://doi.org/10.2174/9781681084534117010015.
- ASTM E96-00e1. (2000). Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken. https://doi.org/10.1520/E0096-00E01.
- Bernal, C. R. (2016). Fracture and failure of starch-based composites. In P. M. V. & L. Yu (Eds.), Starch-based Blends, composites and nanocomposites (pp. 326–351). Royal Society of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1039/9781782622796-00326.
- Chevalier, E., Assezat, G., Prochazka, F., & Oulahal, N. (2018). Development and characterization of a novel edible extruded sheet based on different casein sources and influence of the glycerol concentration. Food Hydrocolloids, 75, 182–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.08.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2012). Pérdidas y desperdicio de alimentos en el mundo-Alcance, causas y prevención. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2697s/i2697s.pdf
- García-Tejeda, Y. V., López-González, C., Pérez-Orozco, J. P., Rendón-Villalobos, R., Jiménez-Pérez, A., Flores-Huicochea, E., Solorza-Feria, J., & Bastida, C. A. (2013). Physicochemical and mechanical properties of extruded laminates from native and oxidized banana starch during storage. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 54(2), 447–455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.05.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ghanbarzadeh, B., Almasi, H., & Entezami, A. A. (2011). Improving the barrier and mechanical properties of corn starch-based edible films: effect of citric acid and carboxymethyl cellulose. Industrial Crops and Products, 33(1), 229–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.10.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gutiérrez, T. J., & Álvarez, K. (2017). Transport phenomena in biodegradable and edible films. In M. A. Masuelli (Ed.), Biopackaging (pp. 59–89). CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group Retrieved from https://www.crcpress.com/Biopackaging/Masuelli/p/book/9781498749688.
- Gutiérrez, T. J., & Alvarez, V. A. (2017c). Properties of native and oxidized corn starch/polystyrene blends under conditions of reactive extrusion using zinc octanoate as a catalyst. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 112, 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gutiérrez, T. J., Ponce, A. G., & Alvarez, V. A. (2017). Nano-clays from natural and modified montmorillonite with and without added blueberry extract for active and intelligent food nanopackaging materials. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 194, 283–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2017.03.052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gutiérrez, T. J., León, I. E., Ponce, A. G., & Alvarez, V. A. (2018). Stabilizing effect of montmorillonite on anthocyanins extracted from Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) flowers: characterization and assessment of cytotoxicity. Food Packaging and Shelf Life. In press.Google Scholar
- ISO 527-2. (2012). Determination of tensile properties of plastics. Retrieved from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:56046:en
- Liu, B., Xu, H., Zhao, H., Liu, W., Zhao, L., & Li, Y. (2017). Preparation and characterization of intelligent starch/PVA films for simultaneous colorimetric indication and antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, 157, 842–849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.10.067.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Luchese, C. L., Garrido, T., Spada, J. C., Tessaro, I. C., & de la Caba, K. (2018). Development and characterization of cassava starch films incorporated with blueberry pomace. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 106, 834–839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.08.083.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pereira, V. A., de Arruda, I. N. Q., & Stefani, R. (2015). Active chitosan/PVA films with anthocyanins from Brassica oleraceae (red cabbage) as time–temperature indicators for application in intelligent food packaging. Food Hydrocolloids, 43, 180–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.05.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rhim, J.-W., & Kim, Y.-T. (2014). Biopolymer-based composite packaging materials with nanoparticles. In S. L. Taylor (Ed.), Innovations in Food Packaging (second ed., pp. 413–442). Amsterdam: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394601-0.00017-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rincón, M., Tapia, M. S., & Padilla, F. (2003). Evaluación de fitoquímicos en el exocarpio (cáscara) de algunas frutas cultivadas en Venezuela. Revista Facultad de Farmacia, 66(2), 73–78.Google Scholar
- Romero-Bastida, C. A., Tapia-Blácido, D. R., Méndez-Montealvo, G., Bello-Pérez, L. A., Velázquez, G., & Alvarez-Ramirez, J. (2016). Effect of amylose content and nanoclay incorporation order in physicochemical properties of starch/montmorillonite composites. Carbohydrate Polymers, 152, 351–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.07.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Slavutsky, A. M., Bertuzzi, M. A., & Armada, M. (2012). Water barrier properties of starch-clay nanocomposite films. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 15(3), 208–218 Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1981-67232012000300004&nrm=iso.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xie, D. F., Martino, V. P., Sangwan, P., Way, C., Cash, G. A., Pollet, E., Dean, K. M., Halley, P. J., & Avérous, L. (2013). Elaboration and properties of plasticised chitosan-based exfoliated nano-biocomposites. Polymer, 54(14), 3654–3662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2013.05.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xie, M., Duan, Y., Li, F., Wang, X., Cui, X., Bacha, U., Zhu, M. P., Xiao, Z., & Zhao, Z. (2017). Preparation and characterization of modified and functional starch (hexadecyl corboxymethyl starch) ether using reactive extrusion. Starch - Stärke, 69(5–6), 1600061. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201600061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar