Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 11, Issue 10, pp 1895–1903 | Cite as

Effect of Subcritical Water on the Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Carrot Leaves

  • Rui Song
  • Marliya Ismail
  • Saeid Baroutian
  • Mohammed Farid
Original Paper


Carrot leaves, which are generally considered as agricultural residue, are rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. This study investigates the extraction of polyphenols and luteolin (flavonoid) from freeze-dried and ground carrot leaves (d < 100 μm) using subcritical water (SCW). Water at elevated temperatures and at high pressure (40 bar) could behave as low-polar solvent to enhance extraction of organic compounds. SCW was investigated at different temperatures (110–230 °C), time (0–114 min), and solid-liquid ratio (15 and 35 g/L). Accordingly, it was revealed that total phenolic content (TPC) from carrot leaves using SCW has an increasing trend with temperature and resulted in 42.83 ± 1.85 mg per g of dry weight in gallic acid equivalent at 210 °C/113.5 min. However, luteolin content using SCW extraction behaved differently, where increase of temperature adversely affected its content. Hot water extraction studies revealed the presence of optimum luteolin content (0.768 ± 0.009-mg/g dry weight) at 120 °C for 10 min. In conclusion, it was shown that carrot leaves are a promising feedstock to extract polyphenols that has high content of luteolin.


Subcritical water Carrot leaves Polyphenol Luteolin 


Funding Information

This research was carried out as part of the Food Industry Enabling Technologies (FIET) program funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (contract MAUX1402).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Song
    • 1
  • Marliya Ismail
    • 1
  • Saeid Baroutian
    • 1
  • Mohammed Farid
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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