Advertisement

Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 11, Issue 10, pp 1795–1806 | Cite as

Microencapsulation of Curcumin by a Spray-Drying Technique Using Gum Arabic as Encapsulating Agent and Release Studies

  • Andreea Bucurescu
  • Alexandra Cristina Blaga
  • Berta N. Estevinho
  • Fernando Rocha
Original Paper
  • 243 Downloads

Abstract

Curcumin is a natural yellow pigment extracted from dried roots of turmeric, used in food applications. Despite its applicability in food products, this phenolic compound is also used in the pharmaceutical field. It is reported to have health benefits such as anticancer, antitumor, and antiviral effects. However, curcumin is a very unstable compound. Therefore, this work proposes the microencapsulation of curcumin, in order to protect it and to improve its stability and solubility in water, by spray-drying, using the gum arabic as an encapsulating agent in three different concentrations 10, 15, and 20% (weight/volume (w/v)). Emulsions were prepared with coconut oil and used to prepare the curcumin microparticles. For this purpose, different analysis and studies were performed. A product yield ranging from 44 to 52% and from 29 to 42% was obtained for the production of microparticles without and with curcumin, respectively. The curcumin microcapsules and empty capsules were characterized and evaluated. All the microparticles presented a spherical form, had a diameter around 7–9 μm (considering a volume distribution), and had a rough surface. The efficiency of encapsulation was between 75 and 85%, being higher for the particles prepared with higher concentrations of encapsulating agents. Considering the controlled release studies, the microcapsules were prepared with different concentrations of gum arabic but showed similar release profiles. However, it was also concluded that increasing the amount of gum arabic used in the formulation of the microparticles, the amount of curcumin released in the first minutes decreases; therefore, the release tends to be slower (63.2% of the release varied between 25.5 and 69.0 min). Fitting the experimental results to a linearized equation of the Weibull model, it was possible to obtain a good correlation coefficient (R2 varying from 0.94 to 0.97), indicating that this model adapts to the experimental data obtained.

Graphical Abstract

SEM images for the microparticles prepared with curcumin using gum arabic, as encapsulating agent and experimental and Weibull model release profiles

Keywords

Curcumin Gum arabic Microencapsulation Spray-drying Weibull model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) for the grant SFRH/BPD/73865/2010 and for the contract based on the DL 57/2016 of B. N. Estevinho.

This work was the result of the project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006939 (Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy—UID/EQU/00511/2013) funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), through COMPETE2020—Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização (POCI), and by national funds, through FCT-Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia; NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000005 – LEPABE-2-ECO-INNOVATION, supported by North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the article.

References

  1. Aguiar, J., Estevinho, B. N., & Santos, L. (2016). Microencapsulation of natural antioxidants for food application—the specific case of coffee antioxidants—a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 58, 21–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.10.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguiar, J., Costa, R., Rocha, F., Estevinho, B. N., & Santos, L. (2017). Design of microparticles containing natural antioxidants: preparation, characterization and controlled release studies. Powder Technology, 313, 287–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2017.03.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2014). Techniques for nanoencapsulation of food ingredients. New York: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9387-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aniesrani Delfiya, D. S., Thangavel, K., Natarajan, N., Kasthuri, R., & Kailappan, R. (2015). Microencapsulation of turmeric oleoresin by spray drying and in vitro release studies of microcapsules. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 38(1), 37–48.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antal, I., Zelkó, R. ., Roczey, N. ., Plachy, J. ., & Rácz, I. . (1997). Dissolution and diffuse reflectance characteristics of coated theophylline particles. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 155, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergonzi, M. C., Hamdouch, R., Mazzacuva, F., Isacchi, B., & Bilia, A. R. (2014). Optimization, characterization and in vitro evaluation of curcumin microemulsions. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 59(1), 148–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cano-Higuita, D. M., Malacrida, C. R., & Telis, V. R. N. (2015a). Stability of curcumin microencapsulated by spray and freeze drying in binary and ternary matrices of maltodextrin, gum Arabic and modified starch. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39(6), 2049–2060.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cano-Higuita, D. M., Vélez, H. A. V., & Telis, V. R. N. (2015b). Microencapsulation of oleoresin in binary and ternary blends of gum Arabic, maltodextrin and modified starch. Ciênc. Agrotec Lavras, 39(2), 173–182.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-70542015000200009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlan, I. C., Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F. (2017). Study of microencapsulation and controlled release of modified chitosan microparticles containing vitamin B12. Powder Technology, 318, 162–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2017.05.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlan, I. C., Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F. (2018). Study of different encapsulating agents for the microencapsulation of. Vitamin B12, 17(4), 855–864.Google Scholar
  11. Carvalho, I. T., Estevinho, B. N., & Santos, L. (2016). Application of microencapsulated essential oils in cosmetic and personal healthcare products—a review. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 38(2), 109–119.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ics.12232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Casanova, F., Estevinho, B. N., & Santos, L. (2016). Preliminary studies of rosmarinic acid microencapsulation with chitosan and modified chitosan for topical delivery. Powder Technology, 297, 44–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2016.04.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dash, S., Murthy, P. N., Nath, L., & Chowdhury, P. (2010). Kinetic modeling on drug release from controlled drug delivery systems. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research, 67(3), 217–223.Google Scholar
  14. de Azeredo, H. M. C. (2005). Encapsulação: aplicação à tecnologia de alimentos. Alim. Nutr. Araraquara, 89–97.Google Scholar
  15. Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F. (2016). Microencapsulation in food biotechnology by a spray-drying process. In V. Ravishankar Rai (Ed.), Advances in food biotechnology (pp. 593–606). Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118864463.ch36.
  16. Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F. (2017a). A key for the future of the flavors in food industry: nanoencapsulation and microencapsulation. In A. E. Oprea & A. M. Grumezescu (Eds.), Nanotechnology applications in food flavor, stability, nutrition and safety (pp. 1–16). Oxford: Elsevier Inc.Google Scholar
  17. Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F. (2017b). Kinetic models applied to soluble vitamins delivery systems prepared by spray drying. Drying Technology, 35(10), 1249–1257.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2016.1242015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Estevinho, B. N., Rocha, F., Santos, L., & Alves, A. (2013a). Microencapsulation with chitosan by spray drying for industry applications—a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 31(2), 138–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Estevinho, B. N., Rocha, F., Santos, L., & Alves, A. (2013b). Using water-soluble chitosan for flavour microencapsulation in food industry. Journal of Microencapsulation, 30(6), 571–579.  https://doi.org/10.3109/02652048.2013.764939.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Estevinho, B. N., Damas, A. M., Martins, P., & Rocha, F. (2014a). The influence of microencapsulation with a modified chitosan (water soluble) on β-galactosidase activity. Drying Technology, 32, 1575–1586.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2014.909843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Estevinho, B. N., Damas, A. M., Martins, P., & Rocha, F. (2014b). Microencapsulation of β-galactosidase with different biopolymers by a spray-drying process. Food Research International, 64, 134–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.05.057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Estevinho, B. N., Ramos, I., & Rocha, F. (2015). Effect of the pH in the formation of β-galactosidase microparticles produced by a spray-drying process. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.03.049.
  23. Estevinho, B. N., Carlan, I., Blaga, A., & Rocha, F. (2016). Soluble vitamins (vitamin B12 and vitamin C) microencapsulated with different biopolymers by a spray drying process. Powder Technology, 289, 71–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2015.11.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Estevinho, B. N., Lopes, A. R., Sousa, V., Rocha, F., & Nunes, O. C. (2017). Microencapsulation of Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T cells by a spray-drying process using different biopolymers. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 338, 85–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.05.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fang, Z., & Bhandari, B. (2010). Encapsulation of polyphenols—a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 21(10), 510–523.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2010.08.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferreira, S., Malacrida, C. R., & Telis, V. R. N. N. (2016). Influence of emulsification methods and use of colloidal silicon dioxide on the microencapsulation by spray drying of turmeric oleoresin in gelatin-starch matrices. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 94(11), 2210–2218.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.22596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gómez-Estaca, J., Gavara, R., & Hernández-Muñoz, P. (2015). Encapsulation of curcumin in electrosprayed gelatin microspheres enhances its bioaccessibility and widens its uses in food applications. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 29, 302–307.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gómez-Mascaraque, L. G., Casagrande Sipoli, C., de La Torre, L. G., & López-Rubio, A. (2017). Microencapsulation structures based on protein-coated liposomes obtained through electrospraying for the stabilization and improved bioaccessibility of curcumin. Food Chemistry, 233, 343–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gonçalves, A., Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F. (2016). Microencapsulation of vitamin A: a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 51, 76–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gonçalves, A., Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F. (2017a). Design and characterization of controlled-release vitamin A microparticles prepared by a spray-drying process. Powder Technology, 305, 411–417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2016.10.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gonçalves, B., Moeenfard, M., Rocha, F., Alves, A., Estevinho, B. N., & Santos, L. (2017b). Microencapsulation of a natural antioxidant from coffee—chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid). Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10(8).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-017-1919-y.
  32. Ishita, C., Khaushik, B., Chimie, F. D. E., Chimic, Ş. I. I. L. H. L. Ş. I. O. B., Carvalho, I. T., et al. (2016). Turmeric and curcumin: biological actions and medical applications (review). Current Science, 87(1), 44–50.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kandasamy, J., & Subramanian, M. (2013). Validated method for estimation of curcumin from different varieties of curcuma longa. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 4(1), 1004–1010.Google Scholar
  34. Kumar, A., Singh, M., Singh, P. P., Singh, S. K., Raj, P., & Pandey, K. D. (2016). Antioxidant efficacy and curcumin content of turmeric (Curcuma-longa L.) flower. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 8(3), 112–114.Google Scholar
  35. Lin, C., Lin, H., Chen, H., Yu, M., & Lee, M. (2009). Stability and characterisation of phospholipid-based curcumin-encapsulated microemulsions. Food Chemistry, 116(4), 923–928.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu, W., Chen, X. D., Cheng, Z., & Selomulya, C. (2016). On enhancing the solubility of curcumin by microencapsulation in whey protein isolate via spray drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 169, 189–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.08.034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lohith Kumar, D. H., & Sarkar, P. (2017). Nanoemulsions for nutrient delivery in food. In Nanoscience in food and agriculture 5 (pp. 81–121). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lohith Kumar, D. H., & Sarkar, P. (2018). Encapsulation of bioactive compounds using nanoemulsions. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 16(1), 59–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-017-0663-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Malacrida, C. R., Ferreira, S., Zuanon, L. A. C., & Nicoletti Telis, V. R. (2015). Freeze-drying for microencapsulation of turmeric oleoresin using modified starch and gelatin. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39(6), 1710–1719.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mehta, H. J., Patel, V., & Sadikot, R. T. (2014). Curcumin and lung cancer—a review. Targeted Oncology, 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11523-014-0321-1.
  41. Moreira Ribeiro, F. W., Da Silva Laurentino, L., Alves, C. R., Rocha Bastos, M. D. S., Correia Da Costa, J. M., Canuto, K. M., & Furtado, R. F. (2015). Chemical modification of gum arabic and its application in the encapsulation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132(8), 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.41519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Munin, A., & Edwards-Lévy, F. (2011). Encapsulation of natural polyphenolic compounds; a review. Pharmaceutics, 3(4), 793–829.  https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics3040793.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Naksuriya, O., Okonogi, S., Schiffelers, R. M., & Hennink, W. E. (2014). Curcumin nanoformulations: a review of pharmaceutical properties and preclinical studies and clinical data related to cancer treatment. Biomaterials, 35(10), 3365–3383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.12.090.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. O’Toole, M. G., Henderson, R. M., Soucy, P. a., Fasciotto, B. H., Hoblitzell, P. J., Keynton, R. S., et al. (2012). Curcumin encapsulation in submicrometer spray-dried chitosan/tween 20 particles. Biomacromolecules, 13, 2309–2314.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm300564v.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Paramera, E. I., Konteles, S. J., & Karathanos, V. T. (2011). Stability and release properties of curcumin encapsulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B-cyclodextrin and modified starch. Food Chemistry, 125(3), 913–922.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sareen, R., Nath, K., Jain, N., & Dhar, K. L. (2014). Curcumin loaded microsponges for colon targeting in inflammatory bowel disease: fabrication, optimization, and in vitro and pharmacodynamic evaluation. BioMed Research International, 2014, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sarkar, P., Lohith, K. D. H., Dhumal, C., Panigrahi, S. S., & Choudhary, R. (2015). Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 2(3), 97–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sattarahmady, N., Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A., Bazzi, P., Heli, H., & Pourtakdoust, S. (2016). Improving pharmaceutical characteristics of curcumin by alginate/pectin microparticles. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 50(3), 131–136.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11094-016-1410-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sun, Y., Du, L., Liu, Y., Li, X., Li, M., Jin, Y., & Qian, X. (2014). Transdermal delivery of the in situ hydrogels of curcumin and its inclusion complexes of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin for melanoma treatment. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 469(1), 31–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.04.039.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Thangapazham, R. L., Sharad, S., & Maheshwari, R. K. (2013). Skin regenerative potentials of curcumin. BioFactors, 39, 141–149.  https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.1078.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang, Y., Lu, Z., Lv, F., & Bie, X. (2009a). Study on microencapsulation of curcumin pigments by spray drying. European Food Research and Technology, 229, 391–396.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1064-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, Y., Lu, Z., Lv, F., Bie, X., Cano-Higuita, D. M., Malacrida, C. R., & Telis, V. R. N. (2009b). Stability of curcumin microencapsulated by spray and freeze drying in binary and ternary matrices of maltodextrin, gum arabic and modified starch. European Food Research and Technology, 229(6), 391–396.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1064-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wilkowska, A., Ambroziak, W., Czyzowska, A., & Adamiec, J. (2016). Effect of microencapsulation by spray-drying and freeze-drying technique on the antioxidant properties of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) juice polyphenolic compounds. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 66(1), 11–16.  https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-2015-0015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, S., Abdul Kadir, H., Hassandarvish, P., Tajik, H., Abubakar, S., & Zandi, K. (2014). A review on antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity of curcumin. BioMed Research International, 2014, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/186864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zuanon, L. A. C., Malacrida, C. R., & Telis, V. R. N. (2013). Production of turmeric oleoresin microcapsules by complex coacervation with gelatin-gum arabic. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 36(3), 364–373.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do PortoLEPABEPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Department of Organic, Biochemical and Food Engineering“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of IasiIasiRomania

Personalised recommendations