Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 380–398 | Cite as

Impact of Temperature Cycling and Isothermal Storage on the Quality of Acidic and Neutral Shelf-Stable Dairy Desserts Packaged in Flexible Pouches

  • Anne-Laure Moufle
  • Julie Jamet
  • Romdhane KarouiEmail author
Original Paper


The aims of the present study were, first, to identify the quality changes occurring in sterilized vanilla and strawberry pudding during storage at 20 °C; second, to understand the effect of storage temperature on aging; and, third, to determine if temperature could be used as an accelerating factor for shelf life or stability studies. Shelf-stable pudding was produced industrially and packaged in flexible pouches. Different ingredients were used to produce strawberry and vanilla pudding, and the resulting pH was 4.1 and 6.5, respectively. Pudding pouches were kept for 7 days at 20 °C and stored for up to 112 days at − 18, 4, 20, and 30 °C, or cycled repeatedly between − 18 and 20 °C, 4 and 20 °C, and 30 and 20 °C with a frequency of two cycles per week. Color, pH, apparent viscosity, flow behavior, and fluorescence spectra measurements were conducted up to 112 days of storage. The most relevant indicators to monitor quality changes in vanilla pudding were η, pH, b*, and tryptophan emission spectra, and in strawberry pudding, a*, b*, and riboflavin, tryptophan, and vitamin A emission spectra. Indeed, the temperature of 30 °C was identified as the most suitable accelerating factor for accelerated aging tests regarding changes in pH, color, riboflavin, and tryptophan fluorescence spectra of pudding, while cycles of 4/20 °C and isothermal storage at 4 °C were the most appropriate tests to accelerate changes in apparent viscosity of pudding.


Shelf-stable pudding Storage temperature Oxidation Fluorescence Rheology 



This study is a part of the ALIBIOTECH project supported by the Hauts-de-France council and FEDER.

Supplementary material

11947_2017_2018_MOESM1_ESM.docx (6 mb)
ESM 1 Fig. S1 Light microscopy photomicrographs of vanilla (a) and strawberry (b) pudding stained with Lugol after 7 days of storage at 20 °C (DOCX 5.96 mb)
11947_2017_2018_MOESM2_ESM.docx (391 kb)
ESM 2 Fig. S2 PCA similarity map determined by the PC1 and PC2 of the normalized vitamin A spectra of vanilla (a) and strawberry (c) samples stored at 20 °C (multiplication symbols), − 18 °C (black triangles), 4 °C (black squares), and 30 °C (black circles), and under cycles of − 18/20 °C (white triangles), 4/20 °C (white squares), and 30/20 °C (white circles), and on additional samples stored at 20 °C (en dashes), and spectral patterns corresponding to PC1 (solid lines) and PC2 (dashed lines) in b and d, respectively (DOCX 391 kb)


  1. Arltoft, D., Madsen, F., & Ipsen, R. (2008). Relating the microstructure of pectin and carrageenan in dairy desserts to rheological and sensory characteristics. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(4), 660–673. Scholar
  2. Boon, C. S., McClements, D. J., Weiss, J., & Decker, E. A. (2010). Factors influencing the chemical stability of carotenoids in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50(6), 515–532. Scholar
  3. Catauro, P. M., & Perchonok, M. H. (2012). Assessment of the long-term stability of retort pouch foods to support extended duration spaceflight. Journal of Food Science, 77(1).
  4. Considine, T., Noisuwan, A., Hemar, Y., Wilkinson, B., Bronlund, J., & Kasapis, S. (2011). Rheological investigations of the interactions between starch and milk proteins in model dairy systems: a review. Food Hydrocolloids, 25(8), 2008–2017. Scholar
  5. Corredig, M., Sharafba, N., & Kristo, E. (2011). Food hydrocolloids polysaccharide e protein interactions in dairy matrices, control and design of structure, 25, 1833–1841. doi:
  6. Curia, A. N. A. V, & Hough, G. E. (2008). Sensory shelf life of a fluid human milk replacement formula, 32(2009), 793–809. doi:
  7. Dattatreya, A., Etzel, M. R., & Rankin, S. A. (2007). Kinetics of browning during accelerated storage of sweet whey powder and prediction of its shelf life. International Dairy Journal, 17(2), 177–182. Scholar
  8. Deeth, H., & Lewis, M. J. (2017). Changes during storage of UHT milk. In H. Deeth & M. J. Lewis (Eds.), High temperature processing of milk and milk products (pp. 261–320). Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Depypere, F., Verbeken, D., Torres, J. D., & Dewettinck, K. (2009). Rheological properties of dairy desserts prepared in an indirect UHT pilot plant. Journal of Food Engineering, 91(1), 140–145. Scholar
  10. Diaz, J. V., Anthon, G. E., & Barrett, D. M. (2007). Nonenzymatic degradation of citrus pectin and pectate during prolonged heating: effects of pH, temperature, and degree of methyl esterification. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(13), 5131–5136. Scholar
  11. Florkin, M., & Stotz, E. H. (1970). Comprehensive biochemistry. Volume 21, Metabolism of vitamins and trace elements. M. Florkin & E. H. Stotz,(éds). Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  12. Fox, P. F., Uniacke-Lowe, T., McSweeney, P. L. H., & O’Mahony, J. A. (2015). Milk lipids. In Dairy chemistry and biochemistry (2nd ed., p. 69–144). Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Gaucher, I., Mollé, D., Gagnaire, V., & Gaucheron, F. (2008). Effects of storage temperature on physico-chemical characteristics of semi-skimmed UHT milk. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(1), 130–143. Scholar
  14. Hemar, Y., Tamehana, M., Munro, P. A., & Singh, H. (2001). Viscosity, microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of commercial milk protein products and xanthan gum. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(4–6), 565–574. Scholar
  15. Herbert, S., Riaublanc, A., Bouchet, B., Gallant, D. J., & Dufour, E. (1999). Fluorescence spectroscopy investigation of acid-or rennet-induced coagulation of milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 82(10), 2056–2062. Scholar
  16. Huang, R., Choe, E., & Min, D. b. (2004). Kinetics for singlet oxygen formation by riboflavin photosensitization and the reaction between riboflavin and singlet oxygen. Journal of Food Science, 69(9), C726–C732. Scholar
  17. Huc, D., Matignon, A., Barey, P., Desprairies, M., Mauduit, S., Sieffermann, J. M., & Michon, C. (2014). Interactions between modified starch and carrageenan during pasting. Food Hydrocolloids, 36, 355–361. Scholar
  18. Jensen, S., Rolin, C., & Ipsen, R. (2010). Stabilisation of acidified skimmed milk with HM pectin. Food Hydrocolloids, 24(4), 291–299. Scholar
  19. Jha, A., Murli, Patel, A. A., Gopal, T. K. S., & Ravishankar, C. N. (2012). Development of a process for shelf stable dairy dessert dalia and its physico-chemical properties. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 49(1), 80–88. Scholar
  20. Jukkola, A., & Rojas, O. J. (2017). Milk fat globules and associated membranes: colloidal properties and processing effects. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 245(April), 92–101. Scholar
  21. Karoui, R., Dufour, E., & De Baerdemaeker, J. (2007a). Front face fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools for monitoring the oxidation of semi-hard cheeses throughout ripening. Food Chemistry, 101(3), 1305–1314. Scholar
  22. Karoui, R., Mazerolles, G., & Dufour, É. (2003). Spectroscopic techniques coupled with chemometric tools for structure and texture determinations in dairy products. International Dairy Journal, 13(8), 607–620. Scholar
  23. Karoui, R., Nicolaï, B., & De Baerdemaeker, J. (2008). Monitoring the egg freshness during storage under modified atmosphere by fluorescence spectroscopy. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1(4), 346–356. Scholar
  24. Karoui, R., Schoonheydt, R., Decuypere, E., Nicolaï, B., & De Baerdemaeker, J. (2007b). Front face fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of egg freshness during storage at a temperature of 12.2 °C and 87% relative humidity. Analytica Chimica Acta, 582(1), 83–91. Scholar
  25. Kilcast, D., & Subramaniam, P. (2000). Introduction. In D. Kilcast and P. Subramaniam (éds), The stability and shelf life of food (p. 1–22). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kneifel, W., Ulberth, F., & Schaffer, E. (1992). Tristimulus colour reflectance measurement of milk and dairy products. Le Lait, 72(4), 383–391. Scholar
  27. Koop, J., Monschein, S., Pauline Macheroux, E., Knaus, T., & Macheroux, P. (2014). Determination of free and bound riboflavin in cow’s milk using a novel flavin-binding protein. Food Chemistry, 146, 94–97. Scholar
  28. Magari, R. T. (2003). Assessing shelf life using real-time and accelerated stability tests. BioPharm International, 16, 36–48. Consulté le 17 septembre 2017.
  29. Maroziene, A., & De Kruif, C. G. (2000). Interaction of pectin and casein micelles. Food Hydrocolloids, 14(4), 391–394. Scholar
  30. Matignon, A., Barey, P., Mauduit, S., Sieffermann, J.-M., & Michon, C. (2014). Etude des interactions amidon / carraghénane / protéines de lait pour une formulation de crèmes desserts : vers l’ingénierie inverse. Innovations Agronomiques, 36, 111–124.Google Scholar
  31. Murthy, U. S., Podder, S. K., & Adiga, P. R. (1976). The interaction of riboflavin with a protein isolated from hen’s egg white: a spectrofluorimetric study. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure, 434(1), 69–81.
  32. Nicoli, M. C. (2012). An introduction to food shelf life: definitions, basic concepts, and regulatory aspects. In M. C. Nicoli (Ed.), Shelf life assessment of food (pp. 1–16). Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  33. Nikkhah, E., Khaiamy, M., Heidary, R., & Azar, A. S. (2010). The effect of ascorbic acid and H2O2 treatment on the stability of anthocyanin pigments in berries. Turkish Journal of Biology, 34(1), 47–53. Scholar
  34. Ramírez-Sucre, M. O., & Vélez-Ruiz, J. F. (2014). Effect of formulation and storage on physicochemical and flow properties of custard flavored with caramel jam. Journal of Food Engineering, 142, 221–227. Scholar
  35. Richards, M., De Kock, H. L., & Buys, E. M. (2014). Multivariate accelerated shelf-life test of low fat UHT milk. International Dairy Journal, 36(1), 38–45. Scholar
  36. Saki, T. A. (2015). Reactive melt blending of low-density polyethylene with poly (acrylic acid). Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 8(2), 191–199. Scholar
  37. Sheraz, M. A., Kazi, S. H., Ahmed, S., Anwar, Z., & Ahmad, I. (2014). Photo, thermal and chemical degradation of riboflavin. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 10, 1999–2012. Scholar
  38. Sila, D. N., Van Buggenhout, S., Duvetter, T., Fraeye, I., De Roeck, A., Van Loey, A., & Hendrickx, M. (2009). Pectins in processed fruits and vegetables: part II—structure function relationships. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 8(2), 105–117. Scholar
  39. Skibsted, L. H., Risbo, J., & Andersen, M. L. (2010). Chemical deterioration and physical instability of food and beverages. CRC Press.Google Scholar
  40. Tanhantan-Nasseri, A., Thibault, J., & Ralet, M.-C. (2008). Citrus pectin: structure and application in acid dairy drinks citrus pectin: structure and application in acid dairy drinks. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology, Citrus, I(2), 60–70.Google Scholar
  41. Tao, H., Yan, J., Zhao, J., Tian, Y., Jin, Z., & Xu, X. (2015). Effect of multiple freezing/thawing cycles on the structural and functional properties of waxy rice starch. PLoS One, 10(5), 1–11. Scholar
  42. Tromp, R. H., De Kruif, C. G., Van Eijk, M., & Rolin, C. (2004). On the mechanism of stabilisation of acidified milk drinks by pectin. Food Hydrocolloids, 18(4), 565–572. Scholar
  43. Verbeken, D., Bael, K., Thas, O., & Dewettinck, K. (2006). Interactions between κ-carrageenan, milk proteins and modified starch in sterilized dairy desserts. International Dairy Journal, 16(5), 482–488. Scholar
  44. Wang, S., Li, C., Copeland, L., Niu, Q., & Wang, S. (2015). Starch retrogradation: a comprehensive review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 14(5), 568–585. Scholar
  45. Wold, J. P., Jørgensen, K., & Lundby, F. (2002). Nondestructive measurement of light-induced oxidation in dairy products by fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. Journal of Dairy Science, 85(7), 1693–1704. Scholar
  46. Wold, J. P., Veberg, A., Nilsen, A., Iani, V., Juzenas, P., & Moan, J. (2005). The role of naturally occurring chlorophyll and porphyrins in light-induced oxidation of dairy products. A study based on fluorescence spectroscopy and sensory analysis. International Dairy Journal, 15(4), 343–353. Scholar
  47. Ye, A., Singh, H., Taylor, M., & Anema, S. (2005). Disruption of fat globules during concentration of whole milk in a pilot scale multiple-effect evaporator. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 58(3), 143–149. Scholar
  48. Yu, S., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Wang, Y., Gong, C., Liu, X., et al. (2015). Effect of freeze-thawing treatment on the microstructure and thermal properties of non-waxy corn starch granule. Starch - Stärke, 67(11–12), 989–1001. Scholar
  49. Zheng, G. H., & Sosulski, F. w. (1998). Determination of water separation from cooked starch and flour pastes after refrigeration and freeze-thaw. Journal of Food Science, 63(1), 134–139. Scholar
  50. Zhou, X., Baik, B. K., Wang, R., & Lim, S. T. (2010). Retrogradation of waxy and normal corn starch gels by temperature cycling. Journal of Cereal Science, 51(1), 57–65. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ. Artois, EA 7394, Institut Charles VIOLLETTELensFrance
  2. 2.MOM GroupParisFrance
  3. 3.ISA Lille, EA 7394, Institut Charles VIOLLETTELilleFrance
  4. 4.ULCO, EA 7394, Institut Charles VIOLLETTEBoulogne sur MerFrance
  5. 5.University Lille, EA 7394, Institut Charles VIOLLETTELilleFrance

Personalised recommendations