Sonication Effect on Bioactive Compounds of Cashew Apple Bagasse
- 324 Downloads
This study describes some effects of high-power ultrasound on cashew apple bagasse. The main objective was to develop an optimized process for sonication of cashew apple bagasse, evaluating the effect of ultrasound on antioxidant compounds. To define the best conditions for sonication, a 23 factorial central composite design was used changing the independent variables: bagasse/water ratio, ultrasonic power intensity (W/cm2), and processing time (min). Antioxidant compounds such as vitamin C, β-carotene, and total phenolic compounds were determined. The total antioxidant capacity (ABTS(2,2 AZINO BIS (3-ethylbenzo thiazoline 6 sulfonic acid) diammoninum salt and DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hidrazil)) was also evaluated. A thermal treatment was carried at the highest temperature reached after sonication (51 °C) to evaluate the heat effect due to a temperature increase during processing. Sonication changed the bagasse aspect from a fibrous residue to a pleasant yellow puree. The maximal concentration of vitamin C, phenolics, and β-carotene was obtained when the processing conditions were as follows: bagasse/water ratio of 1:4 (w/w), ultrasound power intensity of 226 W/cm2, and 6 min of processing. The high total phenolic content (2186 mg of gallic acid/100 g DW), vitamin C (148 mg/100 g DW), and β-carotene (12 mg/100 g) obtained proved the sonication efficiency. The antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH and ABTS assays confirmed the suitability of ultrasound for the preparation of antioxidant-rich cashew apple bagasse puree.
KeywordsHigh-intensity ultrasound Extraction Antioxidants Cashew apple bagasse Bioactive compounds
Authors thank CNPq for the financial support through the National Institute of Science and Technology of Tropical Fruit, FUNCAP, and CAPES for the fellowship.
- Broinizi, P. R. B., Andrade-Wartha, E. R. S., Silva, A. M. O., Novoa, A. J. V., Torres, R. P., Azeredo, H. M. C., et al. (2007). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds naturally contained in by-products of the cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 27(4), 902–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carbonell-Capella, J. M., Buniowska, M., Barba, F. J., Grimi, N., Vorobiev, E., Esteve, M. J., et al. (2016). Changes of antioxidant compounds in a fruit juice-stevia rebaudiana blend processed by pulsed electric technologies and ultrasound. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9(7), 1159–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Denbow, N. (2001). Ultrasonic instrumentation in the food industry. In E. Kress-Rogers & C. J. B. Brimelow (Eds.), Ultrasonic instrumentation in the food industry, 2nd edn (pp. 346). Woodhead Publishing, 872p.Google Scholar
- Fernandes, F. A. N., & Rodrigues, S. (2012). Ultrasound applications in fruit processing. In F. A. N. Fernandes & S. Rodrigues (Eds.), Advances in fruit processing technologies (1 st ed., p. 454). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Gani, A., Baba, W. N., Ahmad, M., Shah, U., Khan, A. A., Wani, I. A., et al. (2016). Effect of ultrasound treatment on physico-chemical, nutraceutical and microbial quality of strawberry. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 66, 496–502.Google Scholar
- Obanda, M., & Owuor, P. O. (1997). Flavanol composition and caffeine content of green leaf as quality potential indicators of Kenyan black teas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 50(1968).Google Scholar
- Oliveira, V. H. (2014). Cajucultura. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 30(1), 001–284.Google Scholar
- Safari, M., Ghanati, F., Behmanesh, M., Hajnorouzi, A., Nahidian, B., & Mina, G. (2013). Enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activity and expression of CAT and PAL genes in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) cells in response to low-intensity ultrasound. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(9), 2847–2855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar