Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 11, pp 1959–1969 | Cite as

Pressure-Thermal Kinetics of Furan Formation in Selected Fruit and Vegetable Juices

  • Santosh Dhakal
  • V. M. Balasubramaniam
  • Jean-Christophe Cocuron
  • Ana Paula Alonso
  • Erdal Agcam
  • Shreya Kamat
Original Paper


Furan, a potential carcinogenic compound, can be formed in array of processed foods. The objective of this study was to conduct kinetic studies in pineapple juice and assess the interactive effects of pressure (0.1 to 600 MPa) and temperature (30 to 120 °C) on furan formation. Additional experiments were carried out in tomato, watermelon, cantaloupe, kale, and carrot juice to understand the influence of matrix and juice pH. Furan was monitored in raw (control) and processed samples by automated headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and quantified by calibration curve method with d4-furan as internal standard. The data were modeled using zero-, first-, and second-order equations. The zero-order rate constants (kT,P), activation energy (Ea), and Gibbs free energy of activation (ΔG) of furan formation in thermally processed (TP; 90–120 °C) pineapple juice were found to be 0.036–0.55 μg/kg/min, 98–114 kJ/mol, and 173.9–180.5 kJ/mol, respectively. Furan concentration was negligible and close to the detection limit (0.37 μg/kg) after pressure treatment (600 MPa at 30 °C) of juice samples. For similar process temperatures, the rate constants of pressure-assisted thermally processed (PATP; 600 MPa at 105 °C) pineapple juice were lower than that of TP samples. Furan formation was influenced by juice matrix and pH. On the other hand, PATP markedly suppressed furan (0.7 to 1.6 μg/kg) in these selected juices. In conclusion, furan formation increased with process temperature and treatment time, while pressure treatment at ambient temperature did not promote its production. Furan formation in TP fruit juices was also influenced by juice matrix and pH, but these were not the significant factors for PATP-treated juices.


High-pressure process Thermal process Kinetics Furan Juices 



Research support to The Ohio State University Food Safety Engineering Laboratory ( was provided, in part, by USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture HATCH project OHO01323 and the food industry. Authors are grateful to the OSU Center for Applied Plant Sciences Targeted Metabolomics Laboratory ( for access to the GC-MS equipment. References to commercial products or trade names are made with the understanding that no endorsement or discrimination by The Ohio State University is implied.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Food Agricultural and Biological EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Center for Applied Plant SciencesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Department of Molecular GeneticsThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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