Pressure-Thermal Kinetics of Furan Formation in Selected Fruit and Vegetable Juices
- 221 Downloads
Furan, a potential carcinogenic compound, can be formed in array of processed foods. The objective of this study was to conduct kinetic studies in pineapple juice and assess the interactive effects of pressure (0.1 to 600 MPa) and temperature (30 to 120 °C) on furan formation. Additional experiments were carried out in tomato, watermelon, cantaloupe, kale, and carrot juice to understand the influence of matrix and juice pH. Furan was monitored in raw (control) and processed samples by automated headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and quantified by calibration curve method with d4-furan as internal standard. The data were modeled using zero-, first-, and second-order equations. The zero-order rate constants (kT,P), activation energy (Ea), and Gibbs free energy of activation (ΔG‡) of furan formation in thermally processed (TP; 90–120 °C) pineapple juice were found to be 0.036–0.55 μg/kg/min, 98–114 kJ/mol, and 173.9–180.5 kJ/mol, respectively. Furan concentration was negligible and close to the detection limit (0.37 μg/kg) after pressure treatment (600 MPa at 30 °C) of juice samples. For similar process temperatures, the rate constants of pressure-assisted thermally processed (PATP; 600 MPa at 105 °C) pineapple juice were lower than that of TP samples. Furan formation was influenced by juice matrix and pH. On the other hand, PATP markedly suppressed furan (0.7 to 1.6 μg/kg) in these selected juices. In conclusion, furan formation increased with process temperature and treatment time, while pressure treatment at ambient temperature did not promote its production. Furan formation in TP fruit juices was also influenced by juice matrix and pH, but these were not the significant factors for PATP-treated juices.
KeywordsHigh-pressure process Thermal process Kinetics Furan Juices
Research support to The Ohio State University Food Safety Engineering Laboratory (u.osu.edu/foodsafetyeng/) was provided, in part, by USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture HATCH project OHO01323 and the food industry. Authors are grateful to the OSU Center for Applied Plant Sciences Targeted Metabolomics Laboratory (metabolomics.osu.edu) for access to the GC-MS equipment. References to commercial products or trade names are made with the understanding that no endorsement or discrimination by The Ohio State University is implied.
- Belitz, H. D., Grosch, W., & Schieberle, P. (2009). Food chemistry, 4th revised and extended edn. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Bermúdez-Aguirre, D., Corradini, M. G., Candoğan, K., & Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. (2016). High pressure processing in combination with high temperature and other preservation factors. In V. M. Balasubramaniam, G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas, & H. L. Lelieveld (Eds.), High pressure processing of food (pp. 193–215). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Daryaei, H., Yousef, A. E., & Balasubramaniam, V. M. (2016). Microbiological aspects of highpressure processing of food: inactivation of microbial vegetative cells and spores. In V. M. Balasubramaniam, G. V. Barbosa-Canovas, & H. Lelieveld (Eds.), High pressure processing of food (pp. 271–294). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2004). Determination of furan in foods. Updated October 7, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/ChemicalContaminants/ucm078400.htm (date accessed September 21, 2014).
- FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Exploratory data on furan in food: individual food products. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/ChemicalContaminants/ucm078439.htm (date accessed May 16, 2015).
- FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2015). Kinetics of microbial inactivation for alternative food processing technologies—overarching principles: kinetics and pathogens of concern for all technologies. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/safepracticesforfoodprocesses/ucm100198.htm (date accessed July 10, 2016).
- Heldman, D. R. (2013). Food preservation process design (pp. 489–497). US: Springer.Google Scholar
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (1995). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals (Vol. 63, pp. 393–407). Lyon, France.Google Scholar
- Maga, J. A., & Katz, I. (1979). Furans in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 11(4), 355–400.Google Scholar
- NTP, National Toxicology Program. (2011). Furan CAS no. 110-00-9. Report on Carcinogens, 12 ed. <http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/Furan.pdf> (date accessed Oct 29, 2015).
- Palmers, S., Grauwet, T., Kebede, B. T., Hendrickx, M. E., & Van Loey, A. (2014). Reduction of furan formation by high-pressure high-temperature treatment of individual vegetable purées. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(9), 2679–2693.Google Scholar
- Palmers, S., Grauwet, T., Vanden Avenne, L., Verhaeghe, T., Kebede, B. T., Hendrickx, M. E., & Van Loey, A. (2016). Effect of oxygen availability and pH on the furan concentration formed during thermal preservation of plant-based foods. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 33(4), 612–622.Google Scholar
- Sevenich, R., Bark, F., Kleinstueck, E., Crews, C., Pye, C., Hradecky, J., Reineke, K., Lavilla, M., Martinez-de-Maranon, I., Briand, J., & Knorr, D. (2015). The impact of high pressure thermal sterilization on the microbiological stability and formation of food processing contaminants in selected fish systems and baby food puree at pilot scale. Food Control, 50, 539–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vazquez-Landaverde, P. A., Qian, M. C., & Torres, J. A. (2007). Kinetic analysis of volatile formation in milk subjected to pressure-assisted thermal treatments. Journal of Food Science, 72(7), E389–E398.Google Scholar