Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 710–719 | Cite as

Industrial Roller Milling Process Characterisation for Targeted Bread Quality Optimization

  • L. Brütsch
  • I. Huggler
  • S. Kuster
  • E. J. Windhab
Original Paper


Out of all satisfying and palatable foods, wheat and other cereals play an essential role in human nutrition. In recent years, customers demand for functionalized flours with engineered properties contributing to well-being. This fuels the need for deeper understanding of the milling process and establishment of relationships between flour properties and product characteristics. To address this shortcoming, structural and functional aspects of starch and protein were investigated in all 33 flour passages obtained during the standard roller milling process of the most widely produced bread flour. Starch and protein alterations were examined on flour, dough and bread levels. Repeated milling cycles and higher impact towards tail-end passages result in compositional differences and increase in damaged starch. This creates weakened gluten networks exhibiting reduced elasticity and extensibility. Decreased viscoelasticity and hence gas-holding capacity result in low loaf volume. With multiple multivariate linear regression, a model could be established allowing for a 95% precise prediction of the loaf volume of the passages and composite flour produced with the same mill settings. This quality prediction of bread quality based on easily measurable parameters on flour levels offers a straightforward approach for a targeted optimization of the milling process.


Standard industrial roller milling process Flour passages Chemical and rheological properties Loaf volume prediction Targeted quality optimisation 



The authors acknowledge the Commission for Technology and Innovation of Switzerland (CTI) and Bühler AG, Uzwil, Switzerland, for funding this project. We thank D. Götz and C. Hahn for their help in the milling experiments. We are further grateful to J. Stalder, P. Soltermann and M. Schirmer for their assistance during chemical analysis and baking trial.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. AACC International (2010). Approved methods of analysis, 11th Ed. Available online only. AACC International. St. Paul, MN, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Banu, I., Stoenescu, G., Ionescu, V., & Aprodu, I. (2010). Physicochemical and rheological analysis of flour mill streams. Cereal Chemistry, 87, 112–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrera, G. N., Pérez, G. T., Ribotta, P. D., & León, A. E. (2007). Influence of damaged starch on cookie and bread-making quality. European Food Research and Technology, 225, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belderok, B., Mesdag, J., & Donner, D. A. (2000). Assay methods and instrumentation. In D. A. Donner (Ed.), Bread-making quality of wheat: a century of breeding in Europe (pp. 67–86). Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Science and Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delcour, J. A., Joye, I. J., Pareyt, I. J., Wilderjans, E., Brijs, K., & Lagrain, B. (2012). Wheat gluten functionality as a quality determinant in cereal-based food products. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 3, 469–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Di Stasio, M., Vacca, P., Piciocchi, N., Meccariello, C., & M. G. Volpe, M. G. (2007). Particle size distribution and starch damage in some soft wheat cultivars. Int J Food Sci Tech., 42, 246–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Every, D., Simmons, L., Al-Hakkak, J., Hawkins, S., & Ross, M. (2002). Amylase, falling number, polysaccharide, protein and ash relationships in wheat millstreams. Euphytica, 126, 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hayta, M., & Schofield, J. D. (2004). Heat and additive induced biochemical transitions in gluten from good and poor breadmaking quality wheats. J Ceral Sci., 40, 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoseney, R. C. (1994). Minor constituents of cereals. In J. A. Delcour & R. C. Hoseney (Eds.), Principles of cereal science and technology (pp. 81–101). St. Paul, MN, USA: AACC International.Google Scholar
  10. Ji-chun, T., Rui-bo, H., Zhi-ying, D., & Yan-Xun, W. (2007). The variation and stability analysis of wheat dough stability time. Agri Sci China., 6, 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kent, N. L., & Evers, A. D. (1969). Variation in protein composition within the endosperm of hard wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 46, 293–300.Google Scholar
  12. Liu, Y., Ohm, J. B., Hareland, G., Wiersma, J., & Kaiser, D. (2011). Sulfur, protein size distribution, and free amino acids in flour mill streams and their relationship to dough rheology and breadmaking traits. Cereal Chemistry, 88, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mann, J., Schiedt, B., Baumann, A., Conde-Petit, B., & Vilgis, T. A. (2014). Effect of heat treatment on wheat dough rheology and wheat protein solubility. Food Sci Technl Int., 20, 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Oliver, J. R., Blakeney, A. B., & Allen, H. M. (1993). The colour of flour streams as related to ash and pigment contents. J Cereal Chem., 17, 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Owens, W. G. (2001). Wheat, corn and coarse grains milling. In W. G. Owens (Ed.), Cereal processing technology (pp. 27–52). Cambridge UK: Woodhead Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pojic, M., Hadnadev, M., & Hadnadev, T. D. (2013). Gelatinization properties of wheat flour as determined by empirical and fundamental rheometric method. European Food Research and Technology, 237, 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pojic, M. M., Spasojevic, N. B., & Atlas, M. D. (2014). Chemometric approach to characterization of flour mill streams: chemical and rheological properties. Food Bioprocess Tech., 7, 1298–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pomeranz, Y. (1988). Wheat: chemistry and technology. St.Paul, MN, USA: AACC International.Google Scholar
  19. Poser, E.S., & Hibbs, (2005) A.N. Wheat flour milling, chapters 5–9, pp-185-327, AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USA.Google Scholar
  20. Prabhasankar, P., Sudha, M. L., & Rao, P. H. (2000). Quality characteristics of wheat flour milled streams. Food Research International, 33, 381–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tanaka, Y., & Mori, Y. (1997). Principal component analysis based on a subset of variables: variable selection and sensitivity analysis. Amer. J. Math. Management Sci., 17, 61–89.Google Scholar
  22. Triboi, E., Abad, A., Michelena, A., Lloveras, J., Ollier, J. L., & Daniel, C. (2000). Environmental effects on the quality of two wheat genotypes: 1. quantitative and qualitative variation of storage proteins. European Journal of Agronomy, 13, 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Veraverbeke, W. S., & Delcour, J. A. (2002). Wheat protein composition and properties of wheat glutenin in relation to breadmaking functionality. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 42, 179–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Villanueva, R. M., Leong, M. H., Posner, E. S., & Ponte, J. G. (2001). Split milling of wheat for diverse end-use products. Cereal Food World., 46, 363–369.Google Scholar
  25. Wang, Y. G., Khan, K., Hareland, G., & Nygard, G. (2007). Distribution of protein composition in bread wheat flour mill streams and relationship to breadmaking quality. Cereal Chemistry, 84, 271–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Brütsch
    • 1
  • I. Huggler
    • 1
  • S. Kuster
    • 1
  • E. J. Windhab
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health Sciences and TechnologyETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations