Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 8, Issue 7, pp 1524–1531 | Cite as

Combination of κ-Carrageenan and Soy Protein Isolate Effects on Functional Properties of Chopped Low-Fat Pork Batters During Heat-Induced Gelation

  • Xue-qin Gao
  • Zhuang-li Kang
  • Wan-gang ZhangEmail author
  • Yu-pin Li
  • Guang-hong Zhou
Original Paper


The current study was conducted to investigate combination impacts of κ-carrageenan (CAR) and soy protein isolate (SPI) on the functional properties of chopped low-fat pork batters during heat-induced gelation. Texture profile analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine the properties of pork batters. The addition of individual CAR and SPI or CAR/SPI mixture improved textural properties except for cohesiveness compared with the control (P < 0.05). The cooking loss with supplemented ingredients was significantly lowered, while the thermal emulsion stability was improved compared to that of the control (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the CAR/SPI mixture formed a more continuous structure evidenced by more uniform fat particles and a more compact protein matrix. Raman spectroscopy showed that pork batters with ingredients resulted in a lower content of α-helice and a higher content of β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil compared with the control. However, no interactions between meat protein and CAR/SPI could be identified by SDS-PAGE profiles. The results indicate that the combination of CAR/SPI can be effectively used to improve functional properties of low-fat pork batters effectively.


Meat protein Carrageenan Soy protein isolate Functional properties Chopped pork batters 





Soy protein isolates


κ-Carrageenan and soy protein isolate mixture


Texture profile analysis


Total fluid release


Water released


Fat released



This research was funded by the Twelfth Five Issues of Rural Areas of People’s Republic of China (2012BAD28B03).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xue-qin Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhuang-li Kang
    • 2
  • Wan-gang Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yu-pin Li
    • 1
  • Guang-hong Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and NutritionNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceHenan Institute of Science and TechnologyXinxiangChina
  3. 3.205 National Center of Meat Quality and Safety Control, College of Food Science and TechnologyNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

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