Advertisement

Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 1386–1392 | Cite as

Efficacy of Aqueous Ozone and Chlorine in Combination with Passive Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Postharvest Shelf-Life Extension of Green Chillies (Capsicum annuum L.)

  • K. Chitravathi
  • O. P. Chauhan
  • P. S. Raju
  • N. Madhukar
Communication

Abstract

Aqueous ozone and chlorine treatments were evaluated for their effectiveness on postharvest quality of green chillies packed under passive modified atmosphere (MA) conditions. Ozone (30 mg) treatment was found significantly (p > 0.05) more effective in maintaining the postharvest quality of chillies as compared to chlorine-treated (100 mg kg−1) and untreated samples. Use of passive modified atmospheric packaging further maintained the quality of chillies and increased their shelf-life when stored at (8 ± 1 °C). Ozone washing also delayed senescence and maintained firmness of chillies during storage. The results suggest that microbial population in terms of total plate count, coliforms, as well as yeast and mold counts of fresh green chillies can be reduced without depleting its major bioactive compounds except for ascorbic acid using combined treatments of ozone wash and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This combination treatment (ozone + MAP) also maintained pigment stability in chillies during storage and extended the shelf-life up to 36 days against 28 and 22 days in the case of chlorine-washed and untreated samples, respectively.

Keywords

Green chillies Ozonation Modified atmosphere packaging Quality Shelf-life 

References

  1. Aguayo, E., Escalona, V.-H., & Artes, F. (2006). Effect of cyclic exposure to ozone gas on physicochemical, sensorial and microbial quality of whole and sliced tomatoes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 39(2), 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (1992) Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 16th Ed. M. L. Speck American Public Health Association, pp 734, Washington.Google Scholar
  3. Barz, W., & Hoesel, W. (1977). Metabolism and degradation of phenolic compounds in plants. Phytochemistry, 12, 339–369.Google Scholar
  4. Beltran, D., Selma, M.-V., Marin, A., & Gil, I.-M. (2005). Ozonated water extends the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 5654–5663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bermudez-Aguirre, D., & Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. (2013). Disinfection of selected vegetables under non-thermal treatments: Chlorine, acid citric, ultraviolet light and ozone. Food Control, 29, 82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blois, M.-S. (1958). Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 26, 1199–1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deepa, N., Kaur, C., George, B., Singh, B., & Kapoor, H.-C. (2007). Antioxidant constituents in some sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Labensm Wiss Technology Food Science and Technology, 40, 212–219.Google Scholar
  8. Edusei, V.-O., Ofosu-Anim, J., Johnson, P.-N.-T., & Cornelius, E.-W. (2012). Extending postharvest life of green chilli pepper fruits with modified atmosphere packaging. Ghana Journal of Horticulture, 10, 131–140.Google Scholar
  9. Fonseca, S.-C., Oliveira, F.-A.-R., & Brecht, J.-K. (2002). Modelling respiration rate of fresh fruits and vegetables for modified atmosphere packages: a review. Journal of Food Engineering, 52(2), 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glowacz, M., Colgan, R., & Rees, D. (2015). Influence of continuous exposure to gaseous ozone on the quality of red bell peppers, cucumbers and zucchini. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 99, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gossauer, A., & Engel, N. (1996). Chlorophyll catabolism e-structures, mechanisms, conversions. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 32, 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Howard, L.-R., Talcott, S.-T., Brenes, C.-H., & Villalon, B. (2000). Changes in phytochemical and antioxidant activity of selected pepper cultivars (Capsicum species) as influenced by maturity. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 48, 1713–1720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ioannis Minasa, S., Ariel Vicentec, R., Dhanapalb, A. P., George Manganarisc, A., Vlasios Goulasc, T., Carlos Crisostob, H., & Molassiotisa, A. (2014). Ozone-induced kiwifruit ripening delay is mediated by ethylene biosynthesis inhibition and cell wall dismantling regulation. Plant Science, 229, 76–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Iwai, K., Suzuki, T., & Fujiwake, H. (1979). Formation and accumulation of pungent principle of hot pepper fruits, capsaicin and its analogues in Capsicum annuum var. annuum cv. Karayatsubusa at different growth stages after flowering. Agricultural Biolological Chemistry, 43, 2493–2498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kablan, T., Koffi, N. R., Marina, K., & Oule Mthias, K. (2008). The effects of different storage temperatures on the quality of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Agricultural Journal, 3(2), 157–162.Google Scholar
  16. Khadre, M.-A., Yousef, A.-E., & Kim, J.-K. (2001). Microbiological aspects of ozone applications in food: a review. Journal of Food Science, 66, 1242–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krajayklang, M., Klieber, A., & Dry, P.-R. (2000). Colour at harvest and post-harvest behaviour influence paprika and chili spice quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 20(3), 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kuti, J.-O. (2004). Antioxidant compounds from four Opuntia cactus pear fruit varieties. Food Chemistry, 85, 527–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laurence, K., Raphaelle, G., Stephen James, J., & Christian, J. (2006). Application of aqueous ozone for treating pre-cut green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of food engineering, 76, 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maftoonazad, N., & Ramaswamy, H.-S. (2005). Postharvest shelf-life extension of avocados using methyl cellulose based coating. Labensm Wiss Technology - Food Science Technology, 38, 617–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manolopoulou, H., Lambrinos, G., & Xanthopoulos, G. (2012). Active modified atmosphere packaging of fresh-cut bell peppers: Effect on quality indices. Journal of Food Research, 1(3), 148–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mapson, L.-W. (1970). Vitamins in fruits. Biochemistry of fruits and their products (pp. 369–383). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Menichini, F., Tundis, R., Bonesi, M., Loizzo, M.-R., Conforti, F., Statti, G., De-Cindio, B., Houghton, P.-J., & Menichini, F. (2009). The influence of fruit ripening on the phytochemical content and biological activity of Capsicum chinnense Jaqc.cv habanero. Food Chemistry, 114, 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mohamad, G., Mohamad, S., & Payvast, G. A. (2011). Variation in phenolics compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of five coloured bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) fruits at two different harvest times. Journal of Functional Foods, 3(1), 344–349.Google Scholar
  25. Pilar, H.-M., Eva, A., Del, V. V., Dinoraz, V., & Rafael, G. (2008). Effect of chitosan coating combined with postharvest calcium treatment on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) quality during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry, 110(2), 428–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ranganna, S. (1999). Handbook of analysis and quality for fruit and vegetable products, second ed (p. 1). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1-29,163,164,578-582.Google Scholar
  27. Rice, R.-G. (1999). Ozone in the United States-State-Of-The-Art. Ozone: Science & Engineering, 21, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sadasivam, S., & Manickam, A. (1997). Biochemical methods (p. 413). New Delhi, India: New Age International Ltd.Google Scholar
  29. Sagoo, S.-K., Little, C.-L., Ward, L., Gillespie, I.-A., & Mitchell, R.-T. (2003). Microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis. Journal of Food Protection, 66(3), 403–409.Google Scholar
  30. Selma, M.-V., Allende, A., Lopez-Galvez, F., Conesa, M.-A., & Gil, M.-I. (2008). Disinfection potential of ozone, ultraviolet-C and their combination in wash water for the fresh-cut vegetable industry. Food Microbiology, 25, 809–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shaha, R. K., Rahman, S., & Asrul, A. (2013). Bioactive compounds in chilli peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) at various ripening (green, yellow and red) stages. Annals of Biological Research, 4(8), 27–34.Google Scholar
  32. Singleton, V.-L., & Rosi, J.-A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungustic acid reagent. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144–158.Google Scholar
  33. Sopher, C.-D., Battles, G.-T., & Johnson, D. (2009). The utilization of ozone for treating vegetable processing Llines. Ozone: Science & Engineering The Journal of the International Ozone Association, 31(4), 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sukrasano, N., & Yeoman, M.-M. (1993). Phenylpropanoid metabolism during growth and development of Capsicum frutescens fruits. Phytochemistry, 32, 839–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tomas-Callejas, A., Lopez-Galvez, F., Sbodio, A., Artes, F., Artes-Hernandez, F., & Trevor Suslow, V. (2012). Chlorine dioxide and chlorine effectiveness to prevent Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella cross-contamination on fresh-cut Red Chard. Food Control, 23, 325–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu, L. (1999). Use of ozone to improve the safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Food Technology, 53(10), 58–61. 63.Google Scholar
  37. Yage, X., Li, X., Qinglian, X., Yun, J., Yaqing, L., & Tang, Y. (2011). Effects of chitosan coating enriched with cinnamon oil on qualitative properties of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Food Chemistry, 124, 1443–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., & Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoids content in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 54, 555–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Chitravathi
    • 1
  • O. P. Chauhan
    • 1
  • P. S. Raju
    • 1
  • N. Madhukar
    • 1
  1. 1.Defence Food Research LaboratorySiddarthanagarIndia

Personalised recommendations