Advertisement

Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 431–444 | Cite as

Properties of Encapsulated Fish Oil in Electrospun Zein Fibres Under Simulated In Vitro Conditions

  • Khalid Moomand
  • Loong-Tak LimEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

In this study, omega-3-rich fish oil was encapsulated in electrosprayed zein beads and electrospun zein fibres using 10 or 20 % (w/w) zein protein solutions, respectively. The zein solutions were prepared in either 70 % (w/w) aqueous ethanol or isopropanol solvents dispersed with 30 % (w/w) fish oil. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the ethanolic zein protein solutions generated smooth fibres while isopropanol-based solutions resulted in beads with an average size of 1 μm. The release of encapsulated fish oil from the zein encapsulant subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without the presence of digestive enzymes. The electrospun/electrosprayed matrices exhibited a combination of swelling and erosion. The extent of matrix swelling, erosion and diffusion of fish oil determined the kinetics of fish oil release from zein protein carriers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were conducted to study the changes of the secondary structure of zein as functions of protein concentration, solvent types and digestive treatments. An increased percentage of α-helical was detected under ethanolic formulation and at higher concentration of zein protein. Enzymatic treatment further disrupted the formation of α-helical and produced higher percentage of random coil structures.

Keywords

Fish oil Electrospinning Zein protein In vitro Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) 

Abbreviations

ATR-FTIR

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

GIF

Gastrointestinal fluid

GIT

Gastrointestinal tract

MDT

Mean dissolution time

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SGF

Simulated gastric fluid

SGI

Simulated gastrointestinal

SIF

Simulated intestinal fluid

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Ontario Ministry of Agriculture & Food, and Ministry of Rural Affairs (OMAF-MRA), and Ocean Nutrition Canada Limited.

References

  1. Alborzi, S., Lim, L.-T., & Kakuda, Y. (2010). Electrospinning of sodium alginate-pectin ultrafine fibers. Journal of Food Science, 75(1), C100–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burgar, M. I., Hoobin, P., Weerakkody, R., Sanguansri, L., & Augustin, M. A. (2008). NMR of microencapsulated fish oil samples during in vitro digestion. Food Biophysics, 4(1), 32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cabra, V., Arreguin, R., Vazquez-Duhalt, R., & Farres, A. (2007). Effect of alkaline deamidation on the structure, surface hydrophobicity, and emulsifying properties of the Z19 alpha-zein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(2), 439–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Calder, P. C. (2008). Session 3: Joint nutrition society and Irish nutrition and dietetic institute symposium on “Nutrition and autoimmune disease” PUFA, inflammatory processes and rheumatoid arthritis. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 67(4), 409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, H., Gu, F., & Huang, Z. (2006). Improved Chou-Fasman method for protein secondary structure prediction. BMC Bioinformatics, 7(4), S14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins, K. D. (2004). Ions from the Hofmeister series and osmolytes: effects on proteins in solution and in the crystallization process. Methods, 34(3), 300–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davis, S. S., Hardy, J. G., & Fara, J. W. (1986). Transit of pharmaceutical dosage forms through the small intestine. Gut, 27(8), 886–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Di Maio, S., & Carrier, R. L. (2011). Gastrointestinal contents in fasted state and post-lipid ingestion: in vivo measurements and in vitro models for studying oral drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society, 151(2), 110–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dousseau, F., & Pézolet, M. (1990). Determination of the secondary structure content of proteins in aqueous solutions from their amide I and amide II infrared bands. Comparison between classical and partial least-squares methods. Biochemistry, 29(37), 8771–8779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Efentakis, M., & Vlachou, M. (2000). Evaluation of high molecular weight poly (oxyethylene) (Polyox) polymer: studies of flow properties and release rates of furosemide and captopril from controlled-release hard gelatin capsules. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 5(3), 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fernandez, A., Torres-Giner, S., & Lagaron, J. M. (2009). Novel route to stabilization of bioactive antioxidants by encapsulation in electrospun fibers of zein prolamine. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(5), 1427–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Geelen, A., Schouten, J. M., Kamphuis, C., Stam, B. E., Burema, J., Renkema, J. M. S., et al. (2007). Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(10), 1116–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gupta, P., Elkins, C., Long, T. E., & Wilkes, G. L. (2005). Electrospinning of linear homopolymers of poly (methyl methacrylate): exploring relationships between fiber formation, viscosity, molecular weight and concentration in a good solvent. Polymer, 46(13), 4799–4810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hellmig, S., Von Schöning, F., Gadow, C., Katsoulis, S., Hedderich, J., Fölsch, U. R., & Stüber, E. (2006). Gastric emptying time of fluids and solids in healthy subjects determined by 13C breath tests: influence of age, sex and body mass index. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 21(12), 1832–1838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hibbeln, J. R., Ferguson, T. A., & Blasbalg, T. L. (2006). Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulation: opportunities for intervention. International Review of Psychiatry, 18(2), 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu, F. B., Bronner, L., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., Rexrode, K. M., Albert, C. M., & Manson, J. E. (2002). Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(14), 1815–1821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Innis, S. M. (2007). Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. Journal of Nutrition, 137(4), 855–859.Google Scholar
  18. Jaworek, A. (2008). Electrostatic micro- and nanoencapsulation and electroemulsification: a brief review. Journal of Microencapsulation, 25(7), 443–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jiang, B., Guo, T., Peng, L., & Sun, Z. (1998). Folding type specific secondary structure propensities of amino acids, derived from alpha-helical, beta-sheet, alpha/beta, and alpha + beta proteins of known structures. Biopolymers, 45(1), 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Joshi, A. B., Sawai, M., Kearney, W. R., & Kirsch, L. E. (2005). Studies on the mechanism of aspartic acid cleavage and glutamine deamidation in the acidic degradation of glucagon. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 94(9), 1912–1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klinkesorn, U., Sophanodora, P., Chinachoti, P., McClements, D. J., & Decker, E. A. (2005). Stability of spray-dried tuna oil emulsions encapsulated with two-layered interfacial membranes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(21), 8365–8371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kolanowski, W., Laufenberg, G., & Kunz, B. (2004). Fish oil stabilisation by microencapsulation with modified cellulose. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 55(4), 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kong, F., & Singh, R. P. (2008). Disintegration of solid foods in human stomach. Journal of Food Science, 73(5), R67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Korsmyer, R. W., Gumy, R., Doelker, E., Buri, P., & Peppas, N. A. (1983). Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 15(1), 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kosaraju, S. L., Weerakkody, R., & Augustin, M. A. (2009). In-vitro evaluation of hydrocolloid–based encapsulated fish oil. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(5), 1413–1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Larsson, S. C., Kumlin, M., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., & Wolk, A. (2004). Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(6), 935–945.Google Scholar
  27. Leaf, A., Kang, J. X., Xiao, Y.-F. F., & Billman, G. E. (2003). Clinical prevention of sudden cardiac death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mechanism of prevention of arrhythmias by n-3 fish oils. Circulation, 107(21), 2646–2652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li, Y., Lim, L.-T., & Kakuda, Y. (2009). Electrospun zein fibers as carriers to stabilize (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. Journal of Food Science, 74(3), C233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsushima, N., Danno, G., Takezawa, H., & Izumi, Y. (1997). Three-dimensional structure of maize alpha-zein proteins studied by small-angle X-ray scattering. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1339(1), 14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McConnell, E. L., Fadda, H. M., & Basit, A. W. (2008). Gut instincts: explorations in intestinal physiology and drug delivery. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 364(2), 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mejia, C. D., Mauer, L. J., & Hamaker, B. R. (2007). Similarities and differences in secondary structure of viscoelastic polymers of maize α-zein and wheat gluten proteins. Journal of Cereal Science, 45(3), 353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mizutani, Y., Matsumura, Y., Imamura, K., Nakanishi, K., & Mori, T. (2003). Effects of water activity and lipid addition on secondary structure of zein in powder systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(1), 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Möckel, J. E., & Lippold, B. C. (1993). Zero-order drug release from hydrocolloid matrices. Pharmaceutical Research, 10(7), 1066–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moomand, K., & Lim, L.-T. (2014). Oxidative stability of encapsulated fish oil in electrospun zein fibres. Food Research International, 62, 523–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Peltonen, L., Valo, H., Kolakovic, R., Laaksonen, T., & Hirvonen, J. (2010). Electrospraying, spray drying and related techniques for production and formulation of drug nanoparticles. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, 7(6), 705–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pongjanyakul, T., & Puttipipatkhachorn, S. (2007). Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: effect of plasticizers on film properties, drug permeation and drug release from coated tablets. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 333(1–2), 34–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Press, A. G., Hauptmann, I. A., Hauptmann, L., Fuchs, B., Fuchs, M., Ewe, K., & Ramadori, G. (1998). Gastrointestinal pH profiles in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 12(7), 673–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roynette, C. E., Calder, P. C., Dupertuis, Y. M., & Pichard, C. (2004). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention. Clinical Nutrition, 23(2), 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Selling, G. W., Woods, K. K., & Biswas, A. (2012). Electrospun zein fibers using glyoxal as the crosslinking reagent. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 123(5), 2651–2661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shin, T. (2008). Properties of a model zein-based chewing gum investigated by objective and sensory methods. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).Google Scholar
  41. Shukla, R., & Cheryan, M. (2001). Zein: the industrial protein from corn. Industrial Crops and Products, 13(3), 171–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Simopoulos, A. P. (2002). Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21(6), 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sinha Roy, D., & Rohera, B. D. (2002). Comparative evaluation of rate of hydration and matrix erosion of HEC and HPC and study of drug release from their matrices. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences : Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16(3), 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Su, K.-P., Huang, S.-Y., Chiu, C.-C., & Shen, W. W. (2003). Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 13(4), 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tao, J., & Shivkumar, S. (2007). Molecular weight dependent structural regimes during the electrospinning of PVA. Materials Letters, 61(11–12), 2325–2328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Torres-Giner, S., Gimenez, E., & Lagaron, J. (2008). Characterization of the morphology and thermal properties of zein prolamine nanostructures obtained by electrospinning. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(4), 601–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Torres-Giner, S., Martinez-Abad, A., Ocio, M. J., & Lagaron, J. M. (2010). Stabilization of a nutraceutical omega-3 fatty acid by encapsulation in ultrathin electrosprayed zein prolamine. Journal of Food Science, 75(6), N69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention. (2000). USP 24 - NF-19: U.S (24th ed.). Rockville: United States Pharmacopeial Convention.Google Scholar
  49. Vega-Lugo, A.-C., & Lim, L.-T. (2008). Electrospinning of soy protein isolate nanofibers. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 2(3), 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vega-Lugo, A.-C., & Lim, L.-T. T. (2009). Controlled release of allyl isothiocyanate using soy protein and poly (lactic acid) electrospun fibers. Food Research International, 42(8), 933–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vega-Lugo, A.-C., & Lim, L.-T. (2012). Effects of poly (ethylene oxide) and pH on the electrospinning of whey protein isolate. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 50(16), 1188–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yong, Y. H., Yamaguchi, S., Gu, Y. S., Mori, T., & Matsumura, Y. (2004). Effects of enzymatic deamidation by protein-glutaminase on structure and functional properties of α-zein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(23), 7094–7100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yong, Y. H., Yamaguchi, S., & Matsumura, Y. (2006). Effects of enzymatic deamidation by protein-glutaminase on structure and functional properties of wheat gluten. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(16), 6034–6040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang, B., Luo, Y., & Wang, Q. (2011). Effect of acid and base treatments on structural, rheological, and antioxidant properties of α-zein. Food Chemistry, 124(1), 210–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zong, X., Kim, K., Fang, D., Ran, S., Hsiao, B. S., & Chu, B. (2002). Structure and process relationship of electrospun bioabsorbable nanofiber membranes. Polymer, 43(16), 4403–4412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations