Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 548–557 | Cite as

Comparative Study on High-Intensity Ultrasound and Pressure Milk Homogenization: Effect on the Kinetics of Yogurt Fermentation Process

  • P. Sfakianakis
  • E. Topakas
  • C. Tzia
Original Paper


Ultrasound (US) application on milk fat homogenization was compared to conventional treatment by pressure in terms of milk fat globule (MFG) size, fermentation process kinetics, and viscosity of set type yogurt. Homogenization of milk by (i) US (frequency 20 kHz, amplitude 150–750 W) and (ii) two-stage pressure (10–30 MPa/5 MPa) was examined.

The more intense the homogenization was, the smaller the MFG became, regardless of the applied method; high-intensity US homogenization reduced the MFG size to 0.78 μm. The fermentation kinetics of ultrasonicated milk samples were significantly different to the samples homogenized by pressure in terms of pH and viscosity. The pH reduction rate and the duration of pH lag phase of US homogenized milk were significantly lower (42 % for μpH and 52 % for λpH) compared to those of milk homogenized by pressure. In terms of viscosity evolution, the US homogenization leads to increased rates of increase (by up to 64 %) and shorter lag phases (by up to 56 %), compared to pressure homogenization. Yogurt coagulum obtained at the end of the fermentation (pH = 4.6) of milk homogenized by US had significantly higher viscosity values compared to those of milk homogenized with pressure. The difference in the evolution and the end values of yogurt’s viscosity was attributed to the denaturation of milk proteins occurring during the US treatment of the milk. US treatment of milk leads to decrease of soluble protein content and composition, which is possibly connected with the formation of insoluble high molecular weight coaggregates that occurred due to whey protein denaturation during US treatment.


Milk fat globule size Fermentation time pH/viscosity evolution model Yogurt apparent viscosity Milk protein denaturation Milk protein aggregates 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensZografouGreece
  2. 2.Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensZografouGreece

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