Grape Processing by High Hydrostatic Pressure: Effect on Microbial Populations, Phenol Extraction and Wine Quality
Vitis vinifera (variety Tempranillo) grapes were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments of 200, 400 and 550 MPa for 10 min, and its effect on microbial populations, phenol extraction and wine quality was examined. At ≥400 MPa, the wild yeast population was strongly reduced from 104 to <10 cfu/ml. Bacteria showed greater resistance, and a residual load remained even after the treatment at 550 MPa. The extraction of phenolic compounds from the HHP-treated grapes was improved, with higher concentrations of total phenols obtained compared to crushing alone. Anthocyanin extraction was also increased, producing wines with better colour intensity. These wines also had higher methanol and ethanol contents and returned higher aromatic quality and colour scores. The HHP treatment of grapes may assist in the use of yeast starters, increase phenol extraction from grape skins and improve wine quality.
KeywordsHigh hydrostatic pressure Red grape Wine Microorganisms Phenols
This work was funded by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (AGL2013-40503-R). The authors thank S. Somolinos, J. A. Sánchez (Dept. Tecnología de Alimentos), A. Villa, P. Santos (Dept. Biotecnología) and R. Domínguez (ICTAN, CSIC) for excellent technical assistance.
- Chen, X., Li, L., You, Y., Mao, B., Zhao, W., & Zhan, J. (2012). The effects of ultra-high pressure treatment on the phenolic composition of red wine. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 33, 203–213.Google Scholar
- Contreras, A., Hidalgo, C., Henschke, P. A., Chambers, P. J., Curtin, C., & Varela, C. (2013). Evaluation of non-Saccharomyces yeast for the reduction of alcohol content in wine. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03780-13. Published ahead of print 27 December 2013.Google Scholar
- Glories, Y. (1984a). La couleur des vins rouges I. Conn Vigne Vin, 18, 195–217.Google Scholar
- Glories, Y. (1984b). La couleur des vins rouges II. Conn Vigne Vin, 18, 253–271.Google Scholar
- Marx, G., Moody, A., & Bermúdez-Aguirre, D. (2011). A comparative study on the structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under nonthermal technologies: high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields and thermo-sonication. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 151, 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Monagas, M., Núñez, V., Bartolomé, B., & Gómez-Cordovés, C. (2003). Anthocyanin-derived pigments in Graciano, Tempranillo, and Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced in Spain. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 54, 163–169.Google Scholar
- Morata, A. (2010). Nuevas tecnologías de conservación de alimentos. Madrid: Antonio Madrid Vicente. (p. 16).Google Scholar
- Morata, A., Benito, S., González, M. C., Palomero, F., Tesfaye, W., & Suárez-Lepe, J. A. (2012a). Cold pasteurization of red wines with high hydrostatic pressure to control Dekkera/Brettanomyces: effect on both aromatic and chromatic quality of wine. European Food Research and Technology, 235, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Puig, A., Vilavella, M., Daoudi, L., Guamis, B., & Minguez, S. (2003). Microbiological and biochemical stabilization of wines using the high pressure technique. Bulletin del l’OIV, 76, 596–617.Google Scholar
- Tao, Y., Sun, D.-W., Górecki, A., Błaszczak, W., Lamparski, G., Amarowicz, R., Fornal, J., & Jeliński, T. (2012). Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of a red wine. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 16, 409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar