Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 88–99 | Cite as

Non-Destructive Global and Localized 2D T1/T2 NMR Relaxometry to Resolve Microstructure in Apples Affected by Watercore

  • Angela Melado-Herreros
  • M. Encarnacion Fernández-Valle
  • Pilar Barreiro
Original Paper


Apples can be considered as having a complex system formed by several structures at different organization levels: macroscale (>100 μm) and microscale (<100 μm). This work implements 2D T1/T2 global and localized relaxometry sequences on whole apples to be able to perform an intensive non-destructive and non-invasive microstructure study. The 2D T1/T2 cross-correlation spectroscopy allows the extraction of quantitative information about the water compartmentation in different subcellular organelles. A clear difference is found as sound apples show neat peaks for water in different subcellular compartments, such as vacuolar, cytoplasmatic and extracellular water, while in watercore-affected tissues such compartments appear merged. Localized relaxometry allows for the predefinition of slices in order to understand the microstructure of a particular region of the fruit, providing information that cannot be derived from global 2D T1/T2 relaxometry.


Non-destructive Microstructure NMR Localized Global Watercore 



This publication has been produced with the financial support of the European Union (project FP7-226783-InsideFood). Also, the authors would like to pay tribute to Brian Hills, the admired NMR pioneer who has passed away. This work would have been impossible without him.

Conflict of interest

The opinions expressed in this document by no means reflect the official opinion of the European Union or its representatives.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela Melado-Herreros
    • 1
  • M. Encarnacion Fernández-Valle
    • 2
  • Pilar Barreiro
    • 1
  1. 1.LPF-TAGRALIATechnical University of Madrid (UPM), ETSI AgrónomosMadridSpain
  2. 2.CAI of NMR and ESRUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

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