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Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 7, Issue 12, pp 3493–3503 | Cite as

Chemical, Functional, and Structural Properties of Spent Coffee Grounds and Coffee Silverskin

  • Lina F. Ballesteros
  • José A. Teixeira
  • Solange I. MussattoEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and coffee silverskin (CS) represent a great pollution hazard if discharged into the environment. Taking this fact into account, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, functional properties, and structural characteristics of these agro-industrial residues in order to identify the characteristics that allow their reutilization in industrial processes. According to the results, SCG and CS are both of lignocellulosic nature. Sugars polymerized to their cellulose and hemicellulose fractions correspond to 51.5 and 40.45 % w/w, respectively; however, the hemicellulose sugars and their composition significantly differ from one residue to another. SCG and CS particles differ in terms of morphology and crystallinity, but both materials have very low porosity and similar melting point. In terms of functional properties, SCG and CS present good water and oil holding capacities, emulsion activity and stability, and antioxidant potential, being therefore great candidates for use on food and pharmaceutical fields.

Keywords

Spent coffee grounds Coffee silverskin Chemical composition Functional properties Structural characteristics 

Abbreviations

CS

Coffee silverskin

DPPH

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

EA

Emulsifying activity

ES

Emulsion stability

FRAP

Ferric reducing antioxidant power

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

ICP-AES

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

IDF

Insoluble dietary fiber

ICDD

International Centre for Diffraction Data

OHC

Oil holding capacity

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SDF

Soluble dietary fiber

SBET

Specific surface area

SCG

Spent coffee grounds

TGA

Thermogravimetric analyses

TDF

Total dietary fiber

TE

Trolox equivalents

WHC

Water holding capacity

XRD

X-ray diffraction

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Science and Technology Foundation of Portugal (FCT) through the grant SFRH/BD/80948/2011 and the Strategic Project PEst-OE/EQB/LA0023/2013. The authors also thank the Project “BioInd - Biotechnology and Bioengineering for improved Industrial and Agro-Food processes", REF. NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000028 co-funded by the Programa Operacional Regional do Norte (ON.2-O Novo Norte), QREN, FEDER. Thanks are also given to Prof. José J.M. Órfão, from the Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade do Porto (Portugal), for his assistance with the porosity analyses.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lina F. Ballesteros
    • 1
  • José A. Teixeira
    • 1
  • Solange I. Mussatto
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre of Biological EngineeringUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal

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