Chemical-Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Responses of Blackcurrant Juices Produced by Different Industrial Processes
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Four blackcurrant juices were produced in industrial scale to study the impact of different processes on the sensory-chemical characteristics and hedonic responses of consumers. Two juices were produced without enzymatic treatment of berries with or without further clarification and filtration. The residue was re-pressed using an enzyme-aided processing method to yield the third juice. The forth juice was obtained by conventional enzymatic processing of berries. The enzyme-aided juices were more astringent and bitter than the non-enzymatic juices, mostly due to higher contents of phenolic compounds, lower contents of sugars, and lower pH and sugar/acid ratio. Higher degree of polymerisation and lower procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratio in proanthocyanidins also contributed to higher intensities of astringencies of the enzyme-aided juices. Overall, the non-enzyme-aided juices received higher ranking in flavour, the enzyme-aided juices in odour. Sweetness, roundness, berryness, and high-sugar content were positive drivers for liking, whereas astringency, bitterness and high content of phenolic compounds were negative drivers. High-pectin content masked the astringency and bitterness of the juices. Higher liking ratings correlated with the previous consumption of blackcurrants and higher age of consumers. Gender showed clear impact on consumer rating of the juices. Males liked more enzyme-aided juices than females and vice versa with the juices produced without the use of enzymes. The processes investigated by this study maybe optimised for commercial production of juices targeted for different consumer groups.
KeywordsBlackcurrant Flavour Juice extraction processes Liking Odour Phenolic compounds
This study was a part of the project “Black Currant as Unique Source of Functional Ingredients of Food: Novel Processes and Innovations”, funded by the Tekes—Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation together with food companies. Analyses of proanthocyanidins on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry system were made possible by a Strategic Research Grant of University of Turku (Ecological Interactions). We thank Saarioinen Oy for producing the juices. We thank Ph.D. Antti Knaapila and Mikael Fabritius for their contributions to hedonic testing and sensory evaluations and Anne Koivuniemi, PiiaKoskinen and Marianne Oraviita for their contribution to chemical analyses.
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