Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 7, Issue 10, pp 2877–2888 | Cite as

Chemical-Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Responses of Blackcurrant Juices Produced by Different Industrial Processes

  • Oskar A. Laaksonen
  • Leenamaija Mäkilä
  • Mari A. Sandell
  • Juha-Pekka Salminen
  • Pengzhan Liu
  • Heikki P. Kallio
  • Baoru Yang
Original Paper


Four blackcurrant juices were produced in industrial scale to study the impact of different processes on the sensory-chemical characteristics and hedonic responses of consumers. Two juices were produced without enzymatic treatment of berries with or without further clarification and filtration. The residue was re-pressed using an enzyme-aided processing method to yield the third juice. The forth juice was obtained by conventional enzymatic processing of berries. The enzyme-aided juices were more astringent and bitter than the non-enzymatic juices, mostly due to higher contents of phenolic compounds, lower contents of sugars, and lower pH and sugar/acid ratio. Higher degree of polymerisation and lower procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratio in proanthocyanidins also contributed to higher intensities of astringencies of the enzyme-aided juices. Overall, the non-enzyme-aided juices received higher ranking in flavour, the enzyme-aided juices in odour. Sweetness, roundness, berryness, and high-sugar content were positive drivers for liking, whereas astringency, bitterness and high content of phenolic compounds were negative drivers. High-pectin content masked the astringency and bitterness of the juices. Higher liking ratings correlated with the previous consumption of blackcurrants and higher age of consumers. Gender showed clear impact on consumer rating of the juices. Males liked more enzyme-aided juices than females and vice versa with the juices produced without the use of enzymes. The processes investigated by this study maybe optimised for commercial production of juices targeted for different consumer groups.


Blackcurrant Flavour Juice extraction processes Liking Odour Phenolic compounds 



This study was a part of the project “Black Currant as Unique Source of Functional Ingredients of Food: Novel Processes and Innovations”, funded by the Tekes—Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation together with food companies. Analyses of proanthocyanidins on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry system were made possible by a Strategic Research Grant of University of Turku (Ecological Interactions). We thank Saarioinen Oy for producing the juices. We thank Ph.D. Antti Knaapila and Mikael Fabritius for their contributions to hedonic testing and sensory evaluations and Anne Koivuniemi, PiiaKoskinen and Marianne Oraviita for their contribution to chemical analyses.


  1. Bagger-Jørgensen, R., & Meyer, A. S. (2004). Effects of different enzymatic pre-press maceration treatments on the release of phenols into blackcurrant juice. European Food Research and Technology, 219, 620–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brennan, R. M., Hunter, E. A., & Muir, D. D. (1997). Genotypic effects on sensory quality of blackcurrant juice using descriptive sensory profiling. Food Research International, 30, 381–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brennan, R. M., Hunter, E. A., & Muir, D. D. (2003). Relative effects of cultivar, heat-treatment and sucrose content on the sensory properties of blackcurrant juice. Food Research International, 36, 1015–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boivin, D., Blanchette, M., Barrette, S., Moghrabi, A., & Béliveau, R. (2007). Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of TNF-induced activation of NFκB by edible berry juice. Anticancer Research, 27, 937–948.Google Scholar
  5. Buchert, J., Koponen, J., Suutarinen, M., Mustranta, A., Lille, M., Törrönen, R., et al. (2005). Effect of enzyme-aided pressing on anthocyanin yield and profiles in bilberry and black currant juices. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 2548–2556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chira, K., Schmauch, G., Saucier, C., Fabre, S., & Teissedre, P. L. (2009). Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 545–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chira, K., Jourdes, M., & Teissedre, P. L. (2012). Cabernet sauvignon red wine astringency quality control by tannin characterization and polymerization during storage. European Food Research and Technology, 234, 253–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Engström, M. T., Pälijärvi, M., Fryganas, C., Grabber, J. H., Mueller-Harvey, I., & Salminen, J.-P. (2014) Rapid qualitative and quantitative analyses of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by UPLC-MS/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 3390–3399.Google Scholar
  9. Erlund, I., Koli, R., Alfthan, G., Marniemi, J., Puukka, P., Mustonen, P., et al. (2008). Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 323–331.Google Scholar
  10. Hufnagel, J. C., & Hofmann, T. (2008a). Orosensory-directed identification of astringent mouthfeel and bitter-tasting compounds in red wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 1376–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hufnagel, J. C., & Hofmann, T. (2008b). Quantitative reconstruction of the nonvolatilesensometabolome of a red wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 9190–9199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iversen, C. K., Jakobsen, H. B., & Olsen, C.-E. (1998). Aroma changes during black currant (Ribesnigrum) nectar processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 1132–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaeger, S. R., Axten, L. G., Wohlers, M. W., & Sun-Waterhouse, D. (2009). Polyphenol-rich beverages: insights from sensory and consumer science. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89, 2356–2363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kapasakalidis, P. G., Rastall, R. A., & Gordon, M. H. (2009). Effect of a cellulase treatment on extraction of antioxidant phenols from black currant (Ribesnigrum L.) pomace. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 4342–4351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koponen, J. M., Buchert, J., Poutanen, K. S., & Törrönen, A. R. (2008a). Effect of pectinolytic juice production on the extractability and fate of bilberry and black currant anthocyanins. European Food Research and Technology, 227, 485–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koponen, J. M., Happonen, A. M., Auriola, S., Kontkanen, H., Buchert, J., Poutanen, K. S., et al. (2008b). Characterization and fate of black currant and bilberry flavonols in enzyme-aided processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 3136–3144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Laaksonen, O., Sandell, M., & Kallio, H. (2010). Chemical factors contributing to orosensory profiles of bilberry (Vacciniummyrtillus) fractions. European Food Research and Technology, 231, 271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Laaksonen, O., Sandell, M., Järvinen, R., & Kallio, H. (2011). Orosensory contributing compounds in crowberry (Empetrumnigrum) press-byproducts. Food Chemistry, 124, 1514–1524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laaksonen, O., Sandell, M., Nordlund, E., Heiniö, R.-L., Malinen, H.-L., Jaakkola, M., et al. (2012). The effect of enzymatic treatment on blackcurrant (Ribesnigrum) juice flavour and its stability. Food Chemistry, 130, 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Laaksonen, O., Ahola, J., & Sandell, M. (2013a). Explaining and predicting individually experienced liking of berry fractions by the hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotype. Appetite, 61, 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Laaksonen, O., Mäkilä, L., Tahvonen, R., Kallio, H., & Yang, B. (2013b). Sensory quality and compositional characteristics of blackcurrant juices produced by different processes. Food Chemistry, 138, 2421–2429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Landbo, A.-K., & Meyer, A. S. (2001). Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black currant juice press residues (Ribesnigrum). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 3169–3177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Landbo, A.-K., & Meyer, A. S. (2004). Effects of different enzymatic maceration treatments on enhancement of anthocyanins and other phenolics in black currant juice. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 5, 503–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lawless, H. T., Horne, J., & Giasi, P. (1996). Astringency of organic acids is related to pH. Chemical Senses, 21, 397–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lehtonen, H.-M., Suomela, J.-P., Tahvonen, R., Vaarno, J., Venojärvi, M., Viikari, J., et al. (2010). Berry meals and risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, 614–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lesschaeve, I., & Noble, A. C. (2005). Polyphenols. Factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(Suppl), 330S–335S.Google Scholar
  27. Mikkelsen, B. B., & Poll, L. (2002). Decomposition and transformation of aroma compounds and anthocyanins during black currant (Ribesnigrum L.) juice processing. Journal of Food Science, 67, 3447–3455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muir, D. D., Hunter, E. A., Williams, S. A. R., & Brennan, R. M. (1998). Sensory profiles of commercial fruit juice drinks: influence of sweetener type. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ng, M., Lawlor, J. B., Chandra, S., Chaya, C., Hewson, L., & Hort, J. (2012) Using quantitative descriptive analysis and temporal dominance of sensations analysis as complementary methods for profiling commercial blackcurrant squashes. Food Quality and Preference, 25, 121–134.Google Scholar
  30. Peleg, H., & Noble, A. C. (1999). Effect of viscosity, temperature and pH on astringency in cranberry juice. Food Quality & Preference, 10, 343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Quijada-Morín, N., Regueiro, J., Simal-Gándara, J., Tomás, E., Rivas-Gonzalo, J. C., & Escribano-Bailón, M. T. (2012). Relationship between the sensory-determined astringency and the flavanolic composition of red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 12355–12361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Salminen, J.-P., & Karonen, M. (2011). Chemical ecology of tannins and other phenolics: we need a change in approach. Functional Ecology, 25, 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sandell, M., Laaksonen, O., Järvinen, R., Rostiala, N., Pohjanheimo, T., Tiitinen, K., et al. (2009). Orosensory profiles and chemical composition of black currant (Ribesnigrum) juice and fractions of press residue. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 3718–3728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scollary, G. R., Pásti, G., Kállay, M., Blackman, J., & Clark, A. C. (2012). Astringency response of red wines: potential role of molecular assembly. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 27, 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sun-Waterhouse, D., & Wadhwa, S. S. (2013). Industry-relevant approaches for minimising the bitterness of bioactive compounds in functional foods: a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6, 607–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tang, X., Kälviäinen, N., & Tuorila, H. (2001). Sensory and hedonic characteristics of juice of sea buckthorn (Hippophaerhamnoides L.) origins and hybrids. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Technologie, 34, 102–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Törrönen, R., Kolehmainen, M., Sarkkinen, E., Mykkänen, H., & Niskanen, L. (2012). Postprandial glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid responses to sucrose consumed with blackcurrants and lingonberries in healthy women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96, 527–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Varming, C., Andersen, M. L., & Poll, L. (2004). Influence of thermal treatment on black currant (Ribesnigrum L.) juice aroma. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 7628–7636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Verbeke, W. (2006). Functional foods. Consumer willingness to compromise on taste for health? Food Quality & Preference, 17, 126–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vidal, S., Francis, L., Guyot, S., Marnet, N., Kwiatkowski, M., Gawel, R., et al. (2003). The mouth-feel properties of grape and apple proanthocyanidins in a wine-like medium. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83, 564–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wollman, N., & Hofmann, T. (2012). Compositional and sensory characterization of red wine polymers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 2045–2061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Woodward, G. M., McCarthy, D., Pham-Thanh, D., & Kay, C. D. (2011). Anthocyaninsremain stable during commercial blackcurrant juice processing. Journal of Food Science, 76, S408–S414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yilmaz, Y., & Toledo, R. T. (2004). Major flavonoids in grape seeds and skins: antioxidant capacity of catechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 255–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zheng, J., Yang, B., Tuomasjukka, S., Ou, S., & Kallio, H. (2009). Effects of latitude and weather conditions on contents of sugars, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in black currant (Ribesnigrum L.) juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 2977–2987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zheng, J., Yang, B., Ruusunen, V., Laaksonen, O., Tahvonen, R., Hellsten, J., et al. (2012). Compositional differences of phenolic compounds between black currant (Ribesnigrum L.) cultivars and their response to latitude and weather conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 6581–6593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oskar A. Laaksonen
    • 1
  • Leenamaija Mäkilä
    • 1
  • Mari A. Sandell
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juha-Pekka Salminen
    • 3
  • Pengzhan Liu
    • 1
  • Heikki P. Kallio
    • 1
  • Baoru Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Functional Foods ForumUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  3. 3.Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of ChemistryUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations