Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 7, Issue 11, pp 3064–3076 | Cite as

The Use of Microwave and Pulsed Electric Field as a Pretreatment Step in Ultrasonic Extraction of Polyphenols from Defatted Hemp Seed Cake (Cannabis sativa) Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Sue-Siang Teh
  • Brian E. Niven
  • Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit
  • Alan Carne
  • Edward John Birch
Original Paper


The use of microwave and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing to optimize polyphenol extraction from defatted hemp seed cake in mixed solvent of methanol, acetone and water (MAW, 7:7:6 v/v/v) was investigated using the Box-Behnken response surface method. A variables combination for microwave processing of time, microwave power and liquid to solid (L:S) ratio and for PEF (ethanol concentration, time, frequency and voltage) were used in the investigation. Following microwave or PEF treatments, the polyphenols were extracted from the samples under ultrasound with fixed variables (200 W of ultrasonic power, water bath of 70 °C and 20 min of extraction time). The measured responses were total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), DPPH˙ scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). The optimum variables combination for microwave processing (5 min treatment time, L:S ratio of 6, 700 W power and volume 30 mL) and PEF-assisted extraction (voltage (30 V), frequency (30 Hz), ethanol concentration (10 %) and time (10 s)) resulted in maximum yields in all measured responses. The results suggest that microwave processing and PEF can be integrated in processing defatted hemp seed cake to enhance polyphenol extraction and maximize the yield.


Hemp seed cake Microwave Pulsed electric field Total phenolics Total flavonoids Antioxidant capacity 



The authors are grateful to the University of Otago Doctoral Scholarship and the research grant of the Department of Food Science, University of Otago for the financial support throughout the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sue-Siang Teh
    • 1
  • Brian E. Niven
    • 2
  • Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit
    • 1
  • Alan Carne
    • 3
  • Edward John Birch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

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