A Novel Time/Temperature Approach to Sous Vide Cooking of Beef Muscle
- 1k Downloads
Sous vide treatment is encountering a renewed interest among chefs and catering operators, but an important concern is that they had been joined by those who were not aware resulting in foods held at time/temperature combination that may be not appropriate by a qualitative point of view. In this study, beef semitendinosus muscles were sous vide cooked by applying two different time/temperature treatments, a typical low temperature–long time (LT-LT) condition realized by cooking 36 h at 75 °C (SV75) and an innovative high temperature–short time (HT-ST) one for 2 h at 100 °C (SV100). Data were compared to traditionally boiled meat, and changes in pasteurization values, weight loss, texture, color, vitamins of B group as well as volatile compounds profile were evaluated. HT-ST treatment proved to achieve a pasteurization value sufficient to exclude Clostridium perfringens risk, while on the contrary, LT-LT may be a sous vide cooking approach that could be subjected to this microbiological hazard. Total weight loss of SV100 resulted significantly lower compared to SV75. SV75 samples showed the lowest shear force and hardness, being also less red than the other two samples. In addition, vitamin B3 retention was very similar for both sous vide methods, while LT-LT condition allowed a higher retention of B12. Finally, volatile compounds of beef muscles cooked by means of LT-LT and HT-ST sous vide conditions showed lower accumulation of off-flavor such as hexanal or 3-octanone in comparison to traditional boiling technique and better preserved the volatile profile of raw meat. Sous vide cooking at HT-ST condition used in this study could represent a feasible alternative to low-temperature treatment allowing to obtain comparable or better qualitative standards except for vitamin B12 retention and hardness.
KeywordsBeef Sous vide Texture Color Vitamins Volatile compounds
The authors gratefully acknowledged Piero Sabella for performing part of the experiments and Mr. Massimo Bottura, Chef of “Osteria Francescana” Restaurant (Modena, Italy) for the assistance on sample preparation and the suggestion of time/temperature combinations.
- AOAC. (2002). Official methods of analysis (16th ed.). Arlington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
- Bourne, M. C. (1978). Texture profile analysis. Food Technology, 32, 62–66.Google Scholar
- Díaz, P., Nieto, G., Garrido, M. D., & Bañón, S. (2008). Microbial, physical–chemical and sensory spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method. Meat Science, 80, 287–292.Google Scholar
- Eitenmiller R & Landen Jr WO (1995) Vitamins. In: Jeon IJ & Ikins WG (Eds.), Analysing Food for Nutrition Labelling and Hazardous Contaminants (pp. 105–281), Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
- Hyytiä-Trees, E., Skyttä, E., Mokkila, M., Kinnunen, A., Lindström, M., Lähteenmäki, L., et al. (2000). Safety evaluation of sous vide-processed products with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by use of challenge studies and predictive microbiological models. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 223–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ledward, D. A. (1992). Colour of raw and cooked meat. In D. A. Ledward, D. E. Johnston, & M. K. Knight (Eds.), Chemistry of muscle-based foods (pp. 128–144). London: Royal Society of Chemistry.Google Scholar
- Vaudagna, S. R., Sánchez, G., Neira, M. S., Insani, E. M., Picallo, A. B., Gallinger, M. M., et al. (2002). Sous vide cooked beef muscles: effects of low temperature–long time (LT-LT) treatments on their quality characteristics and storage stability. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 37, 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar