Preparation of Monodisperse Food-Grade Oleuropein-Loaded W/O/W Emulsions Using Microchannel Emulsification and Evaluation of Their Storage Stability
W/O/W emulsion is an emerging system in developing new functional and low-calorie food products. The aim of this study is to produce food-grade monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions loaded with a hydrophilic bioactive oleuropein. W/O/W emulsions were prepared via high-pressure homogenization and subsequent microchannel (MC) emulsification. The internal aqueous phase was a 5-mM sodium phosphate buffer containing d(+)-glucose (5 wt.%) and oleuropein (0.1–0.7 wt.%). The oil phase consisted of soybean oil and tetraglycerin monolaurate condensed ricinoleic acid esters (TGCR; 3–8 wt.%). The external aqueous phase was a 5-mM sodium phosphate buffer containing d(+)-glucose (5 wt.%) and decaglycerol monolaurate (1 wt.%). Oleuropein-loaded submicron W/O emulsions with average droplet diameters as small as 0.15 μm and monomodal droplet size distributions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization when applying high TGCR concentrations of 5–8 wt.% and low oleuropein concentrations of 0.1–0.3 wt.%. Monodisperse oleuropein-loaded W/O/W emulsions with average W/O droplet diameters of around 27 μm and coefficients of variation of below 5 % were successfully prepared when using a silicon MC array plate with wide channels of 5-μm depth and 18-μm width. The monodisperse W/O/W emulsions prepared at high TGCR concentrations and low oleuropein concentrations were the most stable during 40 days of storage. The adsorption behavior of oleuropein at the internal aqueous–oil interface was relevant to W/O/W emulsions microstructure and stability. The results are believed to provide useful information for successfully preparing stable monodisperse W/O/W emulsions loaded with hydrophilic functional compounds. The surface activity of the loaded material seems to be a key parameter in optimizing the formulation of W/O/W food emulsion.
KeywordsW/O/W emulsion Oleuropein Microchannel emulsification Monodisperse emulsion Emulsifier concentration Surface activity
The authors are grateful to the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) Project, financially supported by JICA and JST, Japan.
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