Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 915–920 | Cite as

Natural Caprine Whey Oligosaccharides Separated by Membrane Technology and Profile Evaluation by Capillary Electrophoresis

  • Diana L. Oliveira
  • R. Andrew Wilbey
  • Alistair S. Grandison
  • Luisa B. RoseiroEmail author


The functional food market is growing rapidly and membrane processing offers several advantages over conventional methods for separation, fractionation and recovery of bioactive components. The aim of the present study was to select a process that could be implemented easily on an industrial scale for the isolation of natural lactose-derived oligosaccharides (OS) from caprine whey, enabling the development of functional foods for clinical and infant nutrition. The most efficient process was the combination of a pre-treatment to eliminate proteins and fat, using an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane of 25-kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO), followed by a tighter UF membrane with 1-kDa MWCO. Circa 90 % of the carbohydrates recovered in the final retentate were OS. Capillary electrophoresis was used to evaluate the OS profile in this retentate. The combined membrane-processing system is thus a promising technique for obtaining natural concentrated OS from whey.


Oligosaccharides Caprine milk whey Ultrafiltration Membrane separation Capillary electrophoresis profile 



Diana Oliveira greatly acknowledges a PhD sponsorship (SFRH/ BD/39042/2007) of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, FCT-MCTES, from the Portuguese Government. The authors are also very grateful to Clare and Jason Holmes from New Forest Goat Dairy, for providing caprines whey for these experiments.


  1. Akin, O., Temelli, F., & Koseoglu, S. (2012). Membrane applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 52, 347–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altria, K., Ennis, K., & Sadler, R. (1999). Quantitative and selective analysis of lactose by capillary electrophoresis. Chromatographia, 49, 406–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barile, D., Tao, N., Lebrilla, C. B., Coisson, J. D., Arlorio, M., & German, B. (2009). Permeate from cheese whey ultrafiltration is a source of milk oligosaccharides. International Dairy Journal, 19, 524–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kunz, C., Rudloff, S., Baier, W., Klein, N., & Strobel, S. (2000). Oligosaccharides in human milk: structural, functional, and metabolic aspects. Annual Review of Nutrition, 20, 699–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Macedo, A., Duarte, E., & Pinho, M. (2011). The role of concentration polarization in ultrafiltration of ovine cheese whey. Journal of Membrane Science, 381, 34–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Martinez-Ferez, A., Guadix, A., & Guadix, E. M. (2006a). Recovery of caprine milk oligosaccharides with ceramic membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 276, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Martinez-Ferez, A., Rudloff, S., Guadix, A., Henkel, C. A., Pohlentz, G., Boza, J. J., et al. (2006b). Goat's milk as a natural source of lactose-derived oligosaccharides: isolation by membrane technology. International Dairy Journal, 16, 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Matsubara, Y., Iwasaki, K., Nakajima, M., Nabetani, H., & Nakao, S. (1996). Recovery of oligosaccharides from steamed soybean waste water in tofu processing by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 60, 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mok, C. K., Ku, K. H., Park, D. J., Kim, N. S., & Sohn, H. S. (1995). Ultrafiltration of soybean cooking water for the production of soyoligosaccharides. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 27, 181–184.Google Scholar
  10. Moreno-Indias, I., Castro, N., Morales-Delanuez, A., Sanchez-Macias, D., Assuncao, P., Capote, J., et al. (2009). Farm and factory production of goat cheese whey results in distinct chemical composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 4792–4796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oliveira, D. L., Costabile, A., Wilbey, R. A., Grandison, A. S., Duarte, L. C., & Roseiro, L. B. (2012a). In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of caprine cheese whey oligosaccharides in batch culture systems. Biofactors, 38, 440–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Oliveira, D. L., Wilbey, R. A., Grandison, A. S., Duarte, L. C., & Roseiro, L. B. (2012b). Separation of oligosaccharides from caprine milk whey prior to prebiotic evaluation. International Dairy Journal, 24, 102–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rathore, A. S., & Shirke, A. (2011). Recent developments in membrane-based separations in biotechnology processes: review. Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 41, 398–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rinaldoni, A. N., Tarazaga, C. C., Campderrós, M. E., & Padilla, A. P. (2009). Assessing performance of skim milk ultrafiltration by using technical parameters. Journal of Food Engineering, 92, 226–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sarney, D. B., Hale, C., Frankel, G., & Vulfson, E. N. (2000). A novel approach to the recovery of biologically active oligosaccharides from milk using a combination of enzymatic treatment and nanofiltration. Biotechnology and Bioengeneering, 69, 461–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana L. Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Andrew Wilbey
    • 1
  • Alistair S. Grandison
    • 1
  • Luisa B. Roseiro
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  2. 2.Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG)Unidade de BioenergiaLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations