Exploitation of Polyphenolic Extracts from Grape Marc as Natural Antioxidants by Encapsulation in Lipid-Based Nanodelivery Systems
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Phenolic compounds were extracted from grape marc by means of high pressure and temperature extraction. In order to increase their dispersability in the aqueous phase, the polyphenolic extracts were encapsulated at a final concentration of 0.1 % (w/w) in nanoemulsion-based delivery systems, which were formulated with natural ingredients, using either a liquid (sunflower oil) or a solid (palm oil) lipid phase, as well as the combination of a hydrophilic and hydrophobic emulsifier, and were produced by high-pressure homogenization. The delivery systems were characterized in terms of physicochemical stability under accelerated ageing (storage at 4 °C, 30 °C, and 55 °C for 14 days), by recording the evolution of the mean droplet size, the creaming index as well as the UV–vis absorption spectra of the encapsulated polyphenols. The antioxidant activity of the encapsulated extracts was measured with two different chemical assays (FRAP and ORAC) and a cellular antioxidant assay. Sunflower oil-based nanoemulsions resulted to be the most physically and chemically stable, with no significant variation of the mean droplet size and no degradation of the encapsulated compounds under the different conditions tested. The FRAP and ORAC assays showed that the antioxidant compounds, when encapsulated, are as available as unencapsulated polyphenols in scavenging the peroxyl radicals (ORAC), but are less available in reducing the ferric tripyridyltriazine complexes (FRAP). Remarkably, the cellular antioxidant activity was significantly higher for the encapsulated grape marc polyphenols than for the unencapsulated ones, suggesting the fundamental role of the nanoemulsions in favoring the delivery through the biological membranes.
KeywordsGrape marc polyphenols Nanoemulsion Delivery system Physicochemical stability Cellular antioxidant activity
Mariarenata Sessa would like to thank the Doctorate Program of the University of Salerno for the financial support during her stay at the Guelph Food Research Centre. This project was supported by the A-Base research (RBPI 109) of Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), and the AAFC-EU Twinning Program.
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