Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 6, Issue 9, pp 2547–2554 | Cite as

Apples Nutraceutic Properties Evaluation Through a Visible and Near-Infrared Portable System

  • R. BeghiEmail author
  • A. Spinardi
  • L. Bodria
  • I. Mignani
  • R. Guidetti


Non-destructive and rapid tools are required for predicting the optimum harvest window and for monitoring fruit quality during postharvest period. This study tested a portable, experimental visible/near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectrophotometer, more versatile and handy than traditional vis/NIR instruments, to measure phytonutrients active in human health and important in fruit storability. Parameters determining sensorial and quality properties of the fruit were also analyzed. The vis/NIR measurement was carried out in field using apples of “Golden Delicious” and “Stark Red Delicious” on tree. Calibration models were developed using PLS regression based on second derivative spectra. For “Golden Delicious” apple, the cross-validation R 2 for soluble solids content (SSC), chlorophyll, titratable acidity (TA), flesh firmness, total phenols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid were 0.72, 0.86, 0.52, 0.44, 0.09, 0.77, and 0.50, respectively. The corresponding RMSECV were 0.78 °Brix, 0.50 nmol/cm2, 0.59 g/L, 6.08 N, 0.10 mg/g, 0.08 nmol/cm2, and 0.83 mg/100 g, respectively. For “Stark Red Delicious” similar calibration statistics were found for SSC, TA, flesh firmness, chlorophyll, and ascorbic acid content. A better calibration performance was achieved for total phenols, while for carotenoids it was less accurate. Cross-validation R 2 for “Stark Red Delicious” total anthocyanins, total flavonoids, and non-anthocyanic flavonoids were 0.67, 0.86, and 0.77, respectively. The corresponding RMSECV were 0.12, 0.14, and 0.15 mg/g, respectively. It was concluded that the portable vis/NIR instrument performed similarly to bench top or portable vis/NIR instruments reported in the literature.


Apple Visible near-infrared Nutraceutical compounds Chemometrics Quality evaluation 



This study received financial support from Regione Lombardia as “INNOVÌ” research project and from Regione Lombardia and European Social Fund for a Post-doctoral Research Fellowship (“Progetto Dote Ricerca”).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Beghi
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Spinardi
    • 2
  • L. Bodria
    • 1
  • I. Mignani
    • 2
  • R. Guidetti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural EngineeringUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Plant ProductionUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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