Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 952–963 | Cite as

Effects of Liquid Whey Protein Concentrate on Functional and Sensorial Properties of Set Yogurts and Fresh Cheese

  • Marta H. F. HenriquesEmail author
  • David M. G. S. Gomes
  • Carlos J. D. Pereira
  • Maria H. M. Gil
Original Paper


The production and incorporation of liquid whey protein concentrates (LWPCs) in fresh cheese and set yogurt is proposed as a solution for immediate reutilization of whey produced by small- and medium-scale dairy plants avoiding expensive processing steps (e.g., evaporation and drying) for the recovery of this by-product. Accordingly, the incorporation of LWPCs in such products was performed in order to compare the functional and sensorial properties of modified products with the conventional ones. The use of LWPC in fresh cheese increased water-holding capacity as well as product stability during storage. Fresh cheese hardness, chewiness, and gumminess decreased during storage in a more pronounced way in products with LWPC. The fat content influences significantly all the physicochemical properties tested in set yogurts. Incorporating LWPC in set yogurts does not produce appreciable differences in the visual properties when considering products with medium-fat content, but these differences become significant for full-fat yogurts. Adhesiveness and springiness were not significantly affected with storage time or by the amount of LWPC incorporated for medium-fat yogurts. Higher values of hardness and gumminess were obtained for full-fat yogurts, but these parameters decreased with LWPC incorporation. Syneresis was reduced using LWPC but increased with storage time. During storage, viscosity differences between LWPC incorporated yogurts and the conventional ones were only maintained in the case of creamy yogurts. The sensory panel detected differences between conventional and modified products in the case of fresh cheeses but no significative differences were detected between yogurts. LWPCs can be a good alternative to conventional dry products used in fresh cheese and set yogurt manufacture since their utilization reduces milk consumption and allows for the increase in total solids content. Additionally, their incorporation in milk originates end products with attractive physicochemical and sensorial characteristics at lower production costs.


Whey protein Set yogurt Fresh cheese Texture, viscosity, syneresis, sensorial properties 



The authors would like to thank Queijaria Serqueijos, SA (Portugal) for supplying bovine whey used in trials. Thanks are also due to Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), Ministério da Ciência e do Ensino Superior, Operational Program of Science and Innovation 2010, for the Ph.D. grant (SFRH/BD/36645/2007).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta H. F. Henriques
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • David M. G. S. Gomes
    • 1
  • Carlos J. D. Pereira
    • 1
  • Maria H. M. Gil
    • 2
  1. 1.Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra—Department of Food Science and TechnologyPolytechnic Institute of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.CIEPQPF, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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