Physical Properties of Non-Agglomerated Cocoa Drink Powder Mixtures Containing Various Types of Sugar and Sweetener
- 416 Downloads
Characterization of flow properties represents a crucial step in the production of powdered composite mixtures. Mixing of cocoa powders with different sugars is the first step in the production of this type of beverages, which leads to a change in the mixtures flow properties. The objective of this work was firstly to determine the physical properties of non-agglomerated powdered cocoa and sugar mixtures and, after that, to determine which physical properties of cocoa powders are influenced by sugar addition and in what way they are influenced by sugars. Mixtures were formulated by two cocoa powders containing different amounts of fat and 11 different kinds of sugar or sweetener. A significant change was found in the median diameter, poured bulk density, compression and decompression force of the mixtures compared to the sole components’ physical properties. All the mixtures display a decreasing compaction coefficient with increase of flow speed, which indicates that these powder mixtures flow more freely at higher transport speeds. An increase of cake height ratio was detected in all the mixtures, indicating that all the mixtures were susceptible to caking and that they formed a strong cake. Insolubility of the mixtures was influenced significantly by the median diameter of the sugar particles added to the mixture. Addition of sugars and sweeteners to the cocoa powder reduced the red and yellow colour components, but the type of sugar or sweetener did not produce a considerable difference in the colour of the cocoa drink mixtures.
KeywordsCocoa Flow properties Mixture Sweetener
The authors would like to thank the food industry “Zvečevo” for supplying the cocoa powder used in this study. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, Republic of Croatia, Projects 058-0581846-2810 and 058-0000000-3470.
- Belščak-Cvitanović, A., Benković, M., Komes, D., Bauman, I., Horžić, D., Dujmić, F., & Matijašec, M. (2010). Physical properties and bioactive constituents of powdered mixtures and drinks prepared with cocoa and various sweeteners. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(12), 7187–7195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Judd, D. B., & Wyszecki, G. (1967). Colour in business science and industry. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Minifie, B. W. (1989). Chocolate cocoa and confectionery: Science and technology. New York: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar