Effect of Blanching and Drying Temperature on Polyphenolic Compound Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Apple Pomace
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The effects of blanching and drying treatments on stability, physical properties, and antioxidant activity of apple pomace polyphenols were evaluated. Blanched and unblanched apples were extracted, and the pomace was dried in a cabinet dryer at a speed of 3 m/s at 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. The color, total phenolics, flavonoids, individual polyphenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and total antioxidant activity were analyzed. The blanching process caused a major retention in color, total polyphenolic content, and total flavonoid content for fresh apple pomace when compared with fresh unblanched pomace. Drying of either fresh blanched or fresh unblanched pomace caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in total polyphenol and flavonoid content leading to a reduction in the total antioxidant activity. When compared with the unblanched treatment, drying the blanched pomace at 80 °C resulted in a product with significant amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. The individual phenolic compounds were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in blanched pomace that was not dried when compared with unblanched samples. Drying blanched apple pomace did not cause a significant change in the concentration of individual polyphenolic compounds, but drying unblanched apple pomace caused a reduction in the concentrations of epicatechin and caffeic acid, with an important reduction in p-coumaric acid at temperatures higher than 60 °C. However, the drying process caused a significant reduction in the antioxidant capacity. Therefore, a combination of blanching and drying processes for apple pomace results in a product that maintains antioxidant capacity.
KeywordsApple pomace Polyphenols Blanching Drying Antioxidant activity HPLC
Authors acknowledge Fundación Produce Chihuahua for financial support for this project (40-99-493). This work is based on Ms.Sc. thesis in Food Science and Technology of María Elena Heras-Ramírez.
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