Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 5, Issue 5, pp 1486–1501 | Cite as

Modeling and Optimization of Microwave Osmotic Dehydration of Apple Cylinders Under Continuous-Flow Spray Mode Processing Conditions

Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this study was to model and optimize the mass transfer behavior during microwave osmotic dehydration of apple cylinders under continuous-flow spray mode processing conditions. Data needed for the model development and optimization were obtained using a central composite rotatable experimental design involving sucrose concentration (33.3–66.8°B), temperature (33.3–66.8 °C), flow rate (2,120–3,480 ml/min), and contact times (5–55 min); and the response variables were moisture loss, solids gain, and weight loss. Mass transfer kinetics was evaluated based on the empirical Azuara model and the conventional diffusion model. Diffusivities of both moisture loss (Dm) and solids gain (Ds) obtained from the diffusion model were related to sucrose concentration, temperature, and flow rate. Optimization was evaluated using a desirability function model which could be used with several imposed constraints. The optimum conditions obtained depended on the imposed constraints. A set of constraints involving maximizing moisture loss and weight reduction while keeping the solids gain below 3.5% gave the following optimal conditions: a 30-min osmotic treatment at 65°B, 60 °C, and 2,800 ml/min flow rate yielding a moisture loss of 40.9%, weight reduction of 37.7%, with a solids gain of 3.32%.

Keywords

Microwave Osmotic dehydration Apple cylinder Effective diffusivity Optimization Response surface methodology 

Nomenclature

D

Diffusion coefficient (m2/s)

DmDs

Diffusion coefficients of water and soluble solids, respectively (m2/s)

a

Significant dimension such as the radius of a cylinder

M

Dimensionless mass ratios under transient conditions

MLe

Moisture loss equilibrium

SGe

Solids gain equilibrium

Mmfcw

Moisture loss ratio

Mmfcs

Solids gain ratio

SG

Solids gain

ML

Moisture loss

WR

Weight reduction

M0

Sample mass (in kilograms) at time 0

Mt

Sample mass (in kilograms) time t

x0

Moisture fractions (kilograms per kilogram wet base) at time 0

xt

Moisture fractions (kilograms per kilogram wet base) time t

so

Solids fractions (kilograms per kilogram wet base) at time 0

st

Solids fractions (kilograms per kilogram wet base) at time t

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Agricultural ChemistryMacdonald Campus, McGill UniversityQuébecCanada

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