Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 665–671 | Cite as

Listeria innocua Multi-target Inactivation by Thermo-sonication and Vanillin

  • Gabriela G. Gastélum
  • Raúl Avila-Sosa
  • Aurelio López-MaloEmail author
  • Enrique Palou
Original Paper


Hurdle technology combining an emerging preservation technique such as low-frequency ultrasound is an alternative for processing juices that are susceptible to suffer a loss of quality due to traditional heat treatments. Predictive microbiology allows evaluation of the effectiveness of preservation techniques and its combinations in order to enhance both food quality and safety. Listeria innocua inactivation by thermo-sonication along with vanillin was investigated. Fermi model (R 2 adj= 0.970 ± 0.02) and surface response methodology (p < 0.05) were utilized in order to evaluate the survival of L. innocua to a multi-target treatment and to predict the interactions of studied techniques, high-intensity/low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz/400 W) at selected wave amplitudes (60, 75, or 90 μm), temperature (40, 50, or 60 °C), and vanillin (200, 350, or 500 mg/kg). A combination of ultrasound, vanillin, and temperature enhanced L. innocua inactivation as described by Fermi parameters a and t c, which decreased as the studied effects increased. A multi-target inactivation effect was observed for a temperature range of 45–55 °C.


Ultrasound Thermo-sonication Vanillin Listeria Hurdle technology 



The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACyT Projects 44088: “Enfoque Multifactorial en la Inocuidad y Estabilidad de Alimentos Vegetales–Productos de Frutas” and 84859: “Combinación de Factores Físicos y Químicos para la Inactivación de Microorganismos Relacionados con Alimentos”) and Universidad de las Américas Puebla. Authors Gastélum and Avila-Sosa gratefully acknowledge financial support for their PhD studies from CONACyT and Universidad de las Américas Puebla.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela G. Gastélum
    • 1
  • Raúl Avila-Sosa
    • 1
  • Aurelio López-Malo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Enrique Palou
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Alimentos y AmbientalUniversidad de las Américas PueblaCholulaMéxico

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